European Union External Action

European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)

21/12/2016 - 16:25
Policy - Activity

Through its European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which has been revised in November 2015, the EU works with its Southern and Eastern Neighbours to foster stabilisation, security and prosperity, in line with the Global Strategy for the European Union's Foreign and Security Policy.

The ENP translates the EU's wish to build on common interests with partner countries of the East and South and commitment to work jointly in key priority areas, including in the promotion of democracy, rule of law, respect for human rights, and social cohesion. The revised Policy aims to build more effective partnerships between the EU and its neighbours towards a more stable EU Neighbourhood, in political, socio-economic and security terms. Strengthening the state and societal resilience of the EU's partners is a key priority in the face of threats and pressures they are experiencing, including the challenges associated with migration and mobility. The key principles of the revised ENP are differentiation amongst partner countries, flexibility, joint ownership, greater involvement of the EU Member States, and shared responsibility. Through the ENP, the EU offers partner countries potential greater access to the EU's market and regulatory framework, standards and internal agencies and programmes.  The EU provides its support to partners in the Neighbourhood region mainly through the European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI), with over EUR 15 billion for 2014-2020

Joint initiative

The implementation of the ENP is a joint endeavor that requires action on both sides, by neighbours and by the EU. On the EU side, the ENP draws on the involvement of the European External Action Service (EEAS), the European Commission services and the Member States, in line with agreed EU foreign and security policy actions.  In its work, the EEAS supports the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission and the Commissioner dealing with European Neighborhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations. 

ENP countries:

The EU and its Neighbourhood partner countries work both bilaterally and regionally to advance the cooperation. 

There are 16 ENP countries:

The ENP: evolution and review

The ENP was launched in 2004 based on a Communication entitled "Wider Europe – Neighbourhood" adopted by the European Commission one year earlier. The Policy was set as a framework to govern the EU's relations with 16 of the EU's Eastern and Southern Neighbours in order to achieve the closest possible political association and the greatest possible degree of economic integration.

The ENP was reviewed in 2011, following the Arab uprisings. A major novelty was the so-called 'more for more' principle, whereby additional reform efforts by partner countries were to be rewarded with additional financial and other support. 

Since its launch, the ENP has evolved considerably, due to a number of radical changes and challenges affecting the neighbouring countries in terms of stability, prosperity and security. Recognising the different level of involvement sought in the bilateral relations by the EU's partners and following extensive public consultations with all the main stakeholders, the European Neighbourhood Policy was reviewed in November 2015 by the European External Action Service and the European Commission services as proposed by President Juncker and requested by EU Member States.

The launch of the ENP Review process took place in parallel with the work conducted on the EU's Global Strategy , which also aims for the stabilisation of the EU's Neighbourhood through building resilience of partners. Whereas a number of EU neighbouring countries go through social and economic changes due to globalisation and internal pressure form reforms, security is a precondition for economic development in the medium to longer term.

While continuing defending the EU values and human rights, the current Review also engages partners in increased cooperation on security matters, in light of a differentiated (tailor-made) approach to partner countries, and enhanced ownership of the Policy by all stakeholders.

In political terms, 4 main domains are at the heart of the new Policy:

(1) Good governance, democracy, rule of law and human rights;

(2) economic development for stabilisation;

(3) security and; 

(4) migration and mobility.

The 2015 Review reinforced the principle of flexibility in order to accelerate assistance and to ensure it is better adapted to rapidly evolving political circumstances and priorities. The EU provides its support to partners in the Neighbourhood region mainly through the European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI), with over EUR 15 billion for 2014-2020. Apart from providing grants, the EU is also aiming to leverage substantial additional funding through cooperation with International Financial Institutions by means of investment subsidies from the Neighbourhood Investment Facility. Technical assistance instruments are available to help implement Association Agendas and Partnership Priorities.

Implementation & monitoring

Differentiated partnerships and the tailor-made approach are the hallmarks of the revised ENP. Country-by-country developments are addressed in factual country-specific reports which are released by European External Action Service and the European Commission ahead of the Association Council meetings or other similar high-level events and replace the previous ENP annual package, which used to be released for all partners at the same time, once a year. 

A Joint Communication on the implementation of the ENP Review will be adopted in spring 2017. This Communication will take stock of developments and trends in the Neighbourhood and will examine how region-wide challenges in the priority areas have been addressed since the revised Policy has been launched.

The Association Agendas and Partnership Priorities build on existing legal agreements with the EU – Partnership & Cooperation Agreements (PCAs) or Association Agreements (AAs). The Association Councils remain the highest formal bodies established under the Association Agreements to supervise the implementation of the Agreements and to discuss issues of mutual interest.

Multilateral partnerships

The ENP is chiefly a bilateral policy between the EU and each partner country. Nevertheless, it is complemented by regional and multilateral cooperation initiatives:

ENP components

Dialogue on migration 

Cooperation with the Southern Mediterranean countries on migration-related issues are strategic, aimed at facilitating mobility but discouraging irregular migration. The EU’s policy framework for dialogue and cooperation on migration with non-EU countries is presented in the Communication on the New Partnership Framework with third countries adopted in June 2016 (COM(2016)385). The EU has proposed to establish structured dialogues on migration, mobility and security to the Southern Mediterranean countries. The goal is to develop, under the auspices of the European Agenda for Migration, mobility partnerships and other agreements ensuring that the movement of persons between the EU and its partner countries is well managed. A Joint Communication on 'Migration on the Central Mediterranean route – Managing flows, saving lives' (JOIN(2017) 4 final) was adopted in January 2017 and was welcomed by the members of the European Council the following month. The EU has also worked closely with the member states of the Khartoum and Rabat Processes to implement the Joint Valletta Action Plan agreed in February 2016. Migration has been addressed in bilateral Partnership Priorities to help strengthen the countries' migration governance framework and efforts to tackle and prevent irregular migration. On a North African level the EU is to establish systems to provide better education, health and social protection for migrant communities.

Dialogue on security

The EU has a large and diversified security-related portfolio with ENP countries, covering all ENP security areas in a combination of bilateral, regional, and cross-border projects. The new focus on security reflected in the ENP Review of 2015 opens up a wide range of new areas of cooperation under the ENP, including conflict prevention, crisis management and security sector reform. The EU will also intensify work with partners to tackle terrorism and to counter radicalisation. The role of the civil society will be key to identify partnership priorities in the field of security on a country-based level. Security Sector Reform is a shared objective with a number of ENP countries and, together with countering terrorism, is among the Partnership Priorities already agreed with Lebanon and with Jordan. Furthermore, a 23 million EUR programme in support of Security Sector Reform activities is being implemented in Tunisia. Counter-terrorism roadmaps and packages are being developed with Tunisia, Lebanon and Jordan, based on extensive dialogue. Several civilian CSDP missions have been deployed in Ukraine, Georgia, Palestine and Libya, with a focus on community security, including border management. Ukraine, Georgia and R. Moldova participate in EU CSDP missions and operations based on Framework Participation Agreements, while Ukraine contributes to the EU Battle Groups. 

Enhanced role for ENP countries in EU programmes

ENP countries have the possibility to participate in around 20 EU programmes, according to different modalities. For formal participation / association to EU programmes, an enabling formal Protocol (FPP) to the relevant Association Agreement with the EU needs to be negotiated. Thus far, the following ENP countries have negotiated such a Protocol: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, Algeria, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia[1]. In April 2015, Moldova ratified the agreement to participate in COSME; Armenia joined in December 2015 and Ukraine in February 2017. Tunisia, Israel, Georgia, Ukraine, Moldova, and Armenia have become full Horizon 2020 partners between 2014 and 2016. Since 2015, Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia have been also associated to Creative Europe. Other ENP countries expressed formal interest in participating in various EU programmes and the processes are ongoing.  Since 2007, the Council also authorised the participation of ENP countries in activities of a large number of EU agencies (FRONTEX, EUROPOL, CEPOL, EEA, EFSA, EMCDDA, etc.). The relevant Agencies' Regulations provide for various options of participation, allowing for different levels of engagement and working arrangements. All ENP countries have some forms of cooperation with EU agencies.

Review of the EaP multilateral architecture 

Following consultations with Partner countries, a review of the EaP multilateral architecture of Platforms and Panels is envisaged so that the modalities for the further strengthening of the cooperation could be agreed at the EaP Summit in November 2017. In particular, a better alignment on the 4 Riga priorities (economic development and market opportunities, connectivity and energy efficiency, strengthening institutions and good governance, mobility and people-to-people links) is foreseen, also in order to ensure the EaP deliverables for 2020.

EU- League of Arab States (LAS) relations

Since the launch of the EU-LAS Strategic Dialogue on November 2015, the EU has strengthened its operational cooperation with the League of Arab States, particularly in the fields of conflict prevention, early warning and crisis management, humanitarian assistance, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and arms control, in the framework of the specific Working Groups dedicated to these topics. Representatives of the European Union and the League of Arab States met in Cairo on 30 November 2016 to hold the fifth meeting of the EU Political and Security Committee and the League of Arab States Permanent Representatives, where it was decided to reinforce the Euro-Arab partnership in a number of key topics. The second meeting of the Strategic Dialogue was held in Cairo in November 2016 and two further Working Groups on international migration and respectively fighting against transnational organised crime were launched, demonstrating the shared regional interests and the common challenges faced on these issues.  

[1] Egypt and Palestine have not yet signed any FPP. Currently, Belarus, Libya and Syria cannot participate.

Central to the ENP are the bilateral Action Plans or Association Agendas between the EU and each ENP partner (12 of them were agreed). These set out an agenda of political and economic reforms with short and medium-term priorities of 3 to 5 years. ENP Action Plans/Association Agendas reflect each partner's needs and capacities, as well as their and the EU’s interests. The ENP is not yet ‘activated’ for Algeria, Belarus, Libya and Syria. An Action Plan with Algeria is currently under negotiation.

Under the ENP, the EU works together with its partners to develop democratic, socially equitable and inclusive societies, and offers its neighbours economic integration, improved circulation of people across borders, financial assistance and technical cooperation toward approximation with EU standards.

Cooperation in specific sectors

Better cooperation in specific sectors means improving daily living conditions of citizens in a tangible way:

  • Through sector cooperation, the ENP promotes the respect for the basic principles of dignity and equality, human rights, and social and economic justice.  These principles are embodied in democratic legal systems and the rule of law, and guaranteed by independent courts.  Efficient and accessible courts protect citizens from arbitrariness, ensure respect for their fundamental rights and guarantee effective justice for all.  Cooperation in reforming the judicial sector and in the fight against corruption forms one of the main priority areas of the ENP in partner countries.
  • The ENP links partner countries with the EU's internal market and its social and economic model. For partners, this means adopting basic rules on equal opportunities, economic participation and fair competition. It means ensuring well-governed institutions and access to social services for all citizens. It implies the promotion of environmental and consumer protection standards, food safety, healthy and safe working conditions. On this basis, the ENP creates the right conditions for economic growth and job creation.
  • The ENP connects the EU with its neighbours, promoting trade, the building of networks in energy and transport, or fostering tourism. It builds bridges between people, facilitates mobility and fosters inter-cultural understanding.  It pays particular attention to educational and youth exchanges, with the aim of fostering human capital development and well-educated, strong and responsible societies.
    Sector policy dialogue and cooperation are a basic element of the ENP and a concrete translation of the EU's foreign policy in the neighbourhood.  By bringing the neighbours closer to its policies and standards, the EU promotes its core values of just, well-governed societies, promoting social development and economic opportunities to all their citizens.

Support and agreements

The European Commission provides financial support in grant form to partners; the European Investment Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development complement this support through loans. The civil society plays an important role in contributing to democracy and good governance building in partner countries. The EU supports organisations via the Civil Society Facility.

The ENP builds upon the legal agreements in place between the EU and the partner in question: Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCA) or Association Agreements (AA). Implementation of the ENP is jointly promoted and monitored through the Committees and sub-Committees established in the frame of these agreements. The European External Action Service and the European Commission publish each year the ENP Progress Reports. The assessments and recommendations contained in the Progress Reports form the basis for EU policy towards each ENP partner under the "more for more" principle.

The 'more for more' principle applies to all incentives proposed by the EU: policy developments as well as to financial assistance (excluded humanitarian assistance, refugee & external borders funds and support to civil society). Partners determinedly embarking on political reforms should be offered, in addition to the incentives available to other partners, those that relate to the most ambitious elements of:

  • Market access: economic integration and development (DCFTAs),
  • Mobility of people (mobility partnerships,
  • A greater share of the EU financial support

In that context, the Commission has decided to set up specific programmes both for the Eastern (EAPIC) and Southern (SPRING) neighbours that will allocate extra financial support only to those neighbours taking clear and concrete steps on political reforms. In addition, a new Civil Society Facility was created in September 2011 to strengthen the capacity of civil society to promote and monitor reforms, and increase public accountability.

The European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI) 2014-2020

For the period 2014-2020, the ENPI will be succeeded by a new European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI).

Read more: Financing the ENP

  • Energy cooperation helps to increase energy security in the EU-ENP area. The aim is secure and stable energy at affordable prices.
  • The EU is increasingly interconnected with the energy systems of its neighbours, and remains dependent on energy supplies from outside the EU. The security and stability of the EU's energy supply is therefore dependent on the security and safety of our neighbours' energy infrastructure and supply. Several neighbouring countries (and their neighbours) directly supply energy to the EU or are transit countries for EU energy supplies.
  • Energy cooperation fosters trade and creates business opportunities, thereby contributing to economic growth and job creation.
  • The EU makes considerable efforts to increase its energy efficiency. Our neighbours have started to make the same effort, but some neighbours are among the least energy efficient economies in the world.
  • With the objective of promoting the use of more sustainable energy the EU works with neighbours on nuclear power plant safety and security (for example the EU is asking Armenia to close its nuclear power plant as soon as possible) and clean energy (including renewable energy sources such as solar and wind). In the same spirit the EU also works with neighbouring countries to combat climate change, preserve the environment, contribute to a healthier life for citizens, make industries more efficient and competitive, create jobs and boost socio-economic growth.
  • Public health cooperation helps extend lives in the EU and its neighbouring countries, contributes to socio-economic development and reduces poverty.
  • Cooperation particularly reinforces the impact of combating cross-border public health threats, especially contagious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, pandemic influenza and tuberculosis.
  • Joint work on other sectors such as the environment, food safety, research and technological development, and road safety also contributes to better health.

In most economies small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the engine of economic growth and job creation.

  • EU cooperation with neighbouring countries improves the operating environment of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by reducing red tape.
  • By approximating their economic regulations with those of the EU, neighbouring countries lay the basis for a fair treatment of all enterprises in areas such as customs, taxation and licencing.
  • EU cooperation and support improves the availability of credit for SMEs and allow them to invest in modernising and expanding their activities.
  • Helping SMEs become successful contributes to fairer and more inclusive economic growth.
  • Cooperation on sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards and a move by neighbouring countries to EU standards will significantly expand the range of agricultural products they can export to the EU and to other parts of the world. High EU standards are a benchmark for many countries. Common standards will also help the EU export more to neighbouring countries. Increasing trade will generate growth and jobs in EU and neighbouring countries.
  • High food safety standards and stringent controls in the food production chain "from farm to fork" help to reduce the risk of spreading animal or plant diseases, and of food-borne illnesses. Stringent sanitary and phytosanitary standards, including animal welfare standards, help improve agricultural production and quality – leading to better and healthier lives for citizens in the EU and neighbouring countries and improves animal welfare.
  • Effective management of public finances ensures that scarce public resources are used efficiently. This enhances people's trust in governments.
  • Cooperation helps to improve the planning of public spending to better reflect policy decisions.
  • Cooperation supports the reinforcement of internal and external controls of all public expenditure, which helps to ensure accountability.
  • Cooperation on effective public procurement helps to encourage inclusive economic development and to fight corruption. Public procurement, government purchases, makes up a large share of public spending and over one-sixth of the Gross Domestic Product of most neighbouring countries in the below programme.
  • Fair and simple access to public procurement gives small and medium-sized enterprises better opportunities to develop their business and thereby fosters economic growth.
  • The existence of effective rules to ensure that companies compete fairly and effectively contributes to economic development and encourages innovation. As a result, consumers have more choice in the goods and services available to them and better value-for-money.
  • Anti-trust policy improves economic opportunities for all and fosters inclusive development.
  • Limiting state aid in a fair manner to areas where it is really necessary provides space for fair competition by better and cheaper producers and allows a more efficient use of scarce public resources.
  • EU cooperation with its European Neighbourhood Policy partners reduces corruption at the borders.
  • Cooperation makes trade cheaper and faster by simplifying customs controls and procedures.
  • Customs cooperation contributes to safer trade by strengthening controls to stop counterfeit and pirated goods.
  • European Neighbourhood Policy promotes good governance and the modernisation of tax systems in order to combat cross-border tax fraud and tax evasion without hindering trade, investment and fair competition.
  • For example, tax cooperation aiming to decrease the high excise duty differences on tobacco products (cigarettes etc.) between the EU and its partners, helps to reduce crimes such as smuggling across common borders, increases budget revenues and contributes to a higher level of health protection.
  • More trade means more economic growth, which can help us overcome the economic crisis. All things being equal, countries with open economies tend to grow faster than those that trade less. 
  • Trade means more jobs and less poverty, both in the EU and our neighbourhood. 
  • Increased trade offers a greater variety of goods, at lower prices, to consumers.
  • Trade agreements between the EU and our partners make it easier to do business.
  • Trade develops and secures economic ties between nations and contributes to political stability.
  • Cooperation through the European Neighbourhood Policy supports the modernisation of the agricultural sector and the development of rural areas. This improves the livelihoods of people in rural areas, creates jobs for farmers and increases their income. 
  • Through cooperation, consumers in neighbouring countries benefit from the increased quality and safety of locally grown produce. 
  • The European Neighbourhood Policy promotes organic farming and the prudent use of genetic engineering, which protects consumers’ health and ensures they know exactly what they are buying. Additionally, the policy tackles climate change by supporting reforestation, combating desertification and promoting biodiversity.
  • High-quality, renowned products are the target of counterfeiting, in particular the copying and passing off of well-known geographical indications, such as 'Chablis', 'Queso Manchego' or 'Prosciutto di Parma'. In an increasingly globalised marketplace, the protection of geographical indications, gives international protection for unique and valuable local products for the benefit of consumers and producers.

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  • The European Neighbourhood Policy aims at a high level of consumer protection and consumer product safety across partner countries. If products do not comply with the rules they should, in principle, be withdrawn from the market. Examples are products containing dangerous chemicals, causing electric shocks or which can be accidentally swallowed by children. 
  • Cooperation helps to better protect the legitimate economic interests of consumers. Consumer rights need to be clear and easily understood; redress should be quick and efficiently enforced.
  • The European Neighbourhood Policy promotes reforms in the area of statistics in order to make partner's statistical data and systems reliable and independent. Trustworthy and timely statistics are vital for any democracy. It is crucial for governments and policymakers to develop successful policies and for citizens to hold their government accountable by monitoring progress towards declared goals.
  • Among other data, our neighbours will have more accurate information on the numbers of people, where they live and what their needs are. This will allow governments to identify certain issues better (e.g. the level of unemployment, the composition of households), and to address them better (e.g. where to build schools and hospitals). Such informed decisions lead to a wiser spending of taxpayer's money.
  • By pooling resources and strengthening cooperation and coordination, the EU and participating countries can better prevent, and respond to natural and man-made disasters such as forest fires, floods, chemical accidents and earthquakes. 
  • Strengthened cooperation and better preparedness will help save lives and limit the potential risks and damage disasters pose to citizens, infrastructure and the environment. It will also help governments use available resources more efficiently.
  • By exchanging expertise and best practice, EU and countries participating in the European Neighbourhood Policy can better adapt to the consequences of climate change and become more resilient to impacts such as water scarcity, droughts, rises in sea levels, floods and storms.
  • The ENP promotes investment in developing low carbon economies, including through promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, which contributes to mitigating climate change and helps partner countries reach emission reduction commitments.
  • Better air and water quality and improved waste management brings important health benefits and a better quality of life for citizens in partner countries to the European Neighbourhood Policy and to EU citizens.
  • Strengthened environment protection improves community viability by better preserving natural resources and improving conditions for agriculture, fisheries, forestry and tourism. 
  • More sustainable resource use, increased resource efficiency and the use of more environmentally friendly technologies benefits business in European Neighbourhood Policy countries, contributing to job creation and the transition to a greener economy
  • Pollution does not respect borders – national action is not enough. The EU and partner countries need to work together to limit air pollution and to ensure the protection of shared seas and river basins
  • The EU has acquired a wide-ranging expertise and know-how on how to protect the environment and promote the sustainable use of natural resources, which it is ready to share with partner countries.
  • The EU’s European Neighbourhood Policy improves the level of protection and enforcement of intellectual property in partner countries, which is crucial for competing in the global economy and stimulating investments. Intellectual property rights (IPRs) (such as patents, trademarks, designs, copyrights or geographical indications) enable inventors, creators and businesses to prevent unauthorised exploitation of their creations, and in return to get a return on their investment. Enforcement of these rights within the EU and outside benefits the EU’s economic growth and helps create jobs.
  • Increased IPR protection provides guarantees regarding the quality and safety of products to consumers in the EU and its neighbourhood. Many counterfeit products place children's and citizens' safety or health at risk, for instance where vehicle spare parts or drugs are concerned. Enforcing IPR guarantees that the products are genuine.
  • The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) is the first pan-European satellite navigation system. Thanks to cooperation with neighbouring countries and the placing there of EGNOS stations the whole territory of Europe is well covered. Neighbouring countries hosting the stations can also make use of EGNOS.
  • EGNOS augments the US GPS satellite navigation system and makes it suitable for use in such fields as transport (precision data needed for planes landing in bad weather conditions), responses to disasters and agriculture (aerial crop spraying).
  • European Neighbourhood Policy partner countries are among those with the world’s youngest populations. Investing in education increases not only individuals' chances to find a good job, but also their opportunities in life. Better education means a more informed democracy and helps increase social and economic development.
  • Working with the EU’s eastern neighbours on improving higher education helps universities having their diplomas recognised by other countries, helping to improve job opportunities for graduates. 
  • Youth exchanges between the EU and partner countries, the training of young people and youth workers, partnerships and networks of youth organisations foster mobility, inclusion and non-formal learning, as well as mutual understanding.
  • Inter-cultural dialogue fosters mutual understanding, the work and exchange of cultural operators, the protection of monuments and cultural heritage and enhances (cultural) tourism.
  • Cooperation on employment and social affairs helps to create more jobs in European Neighbourhood Policy partner countries and to reduce existing high unemployment, notably among women and young people.
  • Working on social issues does not merely involve job creation. It means "decent" work: appropriate working conditions, health and safety at work, and protection for workers through pension schemes, insurance against work accidents and maternity leave. 
  • Social cooperation also means protecting workers' rights and ensuring equal opportunities for all in the labour market. The participation of civil society and trade unions in social dialogue with governments and employers is crucial for the development of democratic and prosperous societies.
  • Information society policy cooperation aims at creating a fair, competitive and transparent market for communications and open use of internet for all. This underpins democracy and freedom of expression and contributes to cheaper communications for consumers. 
  • Cooperation through the European Neighbourhood Policy leads to greater interoperability between the EU and partner countries and helps to boost trust in the internet and to fight cybercrime.

People’s mobility is a basic condition for fostering trade and investment, cultural exchanges and social and economic development in modern society. The EU has signed a number of agreements with neighbours, making mobility and access to Schengen visas easier, quicker and cheaper. With some partners negotiations on visas are being held to achieve visa free travel agreements, on the condition that mobility can take place in a secure and well-managed environment. 

  • Corruption, organised crime, drug smuggling and trafficking in human beings are cross-border issues which threaten both EU and partner countries’ citizens alike. Increasing cooperation serves to combat these threats more efficiently and to foster a secure environment for all citizens. Cooperation is ongoing among police forces and the judiciary including through the exchange of information in the context of EU agencies like Europol. There is also cooperation on better management of common borders. 
  • Cooperation on reforming justice systems helps to guarantee effective justice for citizens. The protection of fundamental rights can only be effective if citizens have access to an independent and efficient justice system. And businesses will only invest and create jobs in a business-friendly environment, where commercial disputes can rapidly be solved by the courts.
  • Cooperation in research is a tool helping the EU and European Neighbourhood Policy partner countries to tackle common societal challenges such as energy security, health issues, a deteriorating environment and climate change. 
  • Thanks to cooperation on research and resulting efficiencies, we can strengthen the economic and industrial competitiveness of neighbourhood partners.