The May 2006 parliamentary election was the second to be held in Fiji since the coup of 2000. It was the third to be conducted using the alternative vote system, introduced in 1998 in a bid to foster moderation in a country where ethnic divisions exist between Fijians of Indian descent and indigenous Fijians. The Chief Observer was István Szent-Iványi (Hungary), member of the European Parliament.
The observers were deployed throughout the country. They met government and electoral officials, candidates and political parties, civil society representatives and the media.