Over the past 40 years, Tanzania has received more than EUR 3 billion to implement an extensive range of projects and programmes. These all have one overarching aim: to reduce poverty; be it through improving roads, sanitation systems, healthcare, community education and good governance.
A larger share of EU funding for Tanzania originates from the European Development Fund (EDF). The EDF supports cooperation activities in the fields of economic development, social and human development as well as regional cooperation and integration.
The EDF is financed by EU Member States according to a contribution key and is covered by its own financial rules. The total financial resources of the 11th EDF amount to EUR 30.5 billion for 2014-2020.
According to the 11th EDF National Indicative Programme (EUR 626 million), the EU will promote pro-poor, inclusive and sustainable growth, in line with the Agenda for Change and with the country national development strategies (Tanzania Vision 2025 – TV 2025, the Five Year Development Plan II) and the corresponding Big Results Now (BRN) initiative launched in 2013 to boost results in certain sectors (education, water, energy, transport, agriculture). The NIP is focused on three sectors; good governance and development, energy, and sustainable agriculture.
European Union Support to Tanzania
Climate Change and Environment
Tanzania is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, with 80% of the population relying on climate sensitive, rain-fed agriculture for their livelihood. Strengthening resilience is therefore crucial to ensuring sustainable socio-economic development and food and nutrition security.
The European Union promotes climate action through a wide range of initiatives from policy and institutional development to community-based projects. This includes promoting innovative approaches in agriculture, livestock, water, energy and natural resource management in selected villages and pioneering replicable solutions to climate change vulnerability in selected villages through agroforestry, rainwater harvesting and fuel-efficient cooking stoves.
A major vehicle for support is the “Global Climate Change Alliance” (GCCA) programme, established in 2007 to strengthen dialogue and cooperation on adaptation and mitigation with emphasis on emission reduction from deforestation and forest degradation and disaster risk reduction. The GCCA started its work in four pilot countries, including Tanzania, and has evolved today into a EUR 300 million programme including 51 actions in 38 countries, 8 regions and several sub-regions.
The EU has been at the forefront of wildlife conservation and in the fight against illegal wildlife trade, both domestically and globally, over the past decade.
Since 2001, the EU has been the main financial supporter of the MIKE- Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants Programme, which in Tanzania has worked in 4 sites: Selous/Mikumi, Ruaha/Rungwa, Katavi/Rukwa, Tarangire/Manyara.
Under the “Non-State Actors Environment Programme”, the EU is currently working with two WMAs in Western Serengeti and supporting the resilience of communities is enhanced through sustainable land use planning and participatory community-based natural resource management practices.
For almost a decade now, the EU has joined forces with Tanzania to fight against energy poverty. It has promoted the introduction of innovative approaches for decentralised solutions to energy supply based on renewable sources, as well as grid development and new connections in rural areas. Support has also entailed activities to strengthen capacities of key stakeholders in the sector, in rural electrification planning and policy, as well as regulatory reforms. The EU continues to work closely with the Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM), the Rural Energy Agency (REA), the regulatory authority EWURA and the power utility TANESCO.
Empowering Tanzania: Energy for Growth and Sustainable Development
Cultural Heritage and Creative Industries
Cultural heritage and creative industries in the culture sector are crucial to any society and to promoting sustainable development. They can however only flourish if they operate in an enabling environment, offering actors the opportunity to create, innovate and promote their products for the benefit of all. There is much potential in Tanzania; development partners, the private sector and the government all need to team up to facilitate the development of those cultural initiatives which can support Tanzanian history and identity.
The European Union is proud to be one of the largest investors in the sectors of arts and cultural heritage in the country. Under the 10th European Development Fund ‘Support to Culture’ programme, the EU is providing EUR 10 million for a range of initiatives. Eighteen projects have been selected to support Tanzanians with jobs and livelihoods through the restoration of traditional buildings, the weaving industry, production skills including dance, music and theatre, art as well as tourism related activities.
In addition, the EU thematic budget line ‘Investing in People’ supports a job creation programme, assisting with skills development in traditional restoration techniques as well as tourism guides in Zanzibar.
The objective of the partnership between the EU and Tanzania is to promote inclusive, sustainable and employment-based economic growth. The cooperation is therefore aligned to Tanzania's development strategies, which relies on a stable macro-economic environment and effective and accountable public administration.
The European Union promotes good governance through interventions in areas as diverse as the rule of law, democratisation, public finance management, transparency of extractive industries, human rights and capacity development of civil society organisations. In all interventions, particular attention is paid to the promotion of gender equality and women empowerment, as well as child-rights.
In addition to budget support, which relies on a beneficial dialogue with the authorities around development policies and their outcome, the EU supports the government's reforms and systems in public finance management, including budget planning and formulation and expenditure management. Domestic revenue mobilisation in particular is addressed both at central and local government level. Dedicated technical assistance is provided to the oversight institutions, such as the internal auditor general, the controller, auditor general and the Parliament committees.
Furthermore, the EU has a long-standing tradition in supporting credible, transparent and inclusive elections in Tanzania and is also actively promoting legal sector reforms and capacity development, as well as policy and regulatory reforms for civil society organisations in Zanzibar.
The European Union is a key partner in providing support for Infrastructure in Tanzania, in particular in the areas of energy, water & sanitation and transport.
In energy, a focal sector under the 11th European Development Fund (EDF), support ranges from improving rural energy access through mini-hydro projects, biogas digesters and solar systems, to the development of transmission and distribution infrastructure, along with support to the Tanzania Electricity Supply Industry Reform Strategy and Roadmap. The EU is also supporting the development of capacities and skills in the Extractive sector (Oil and Gas) and is one of the main contributors to the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (T-EITI).
In the areas of water and sanitation, the main objective of EU engagement is to help achieve access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, while improving water governance and the management of water resources and infrastructures. The impact of these interventions has directly improved the living conditions of 8% of the population. Projects have been concentrated in Mwanza, Mbeya, Iringa, Lindi, Kigoma, Sumbawanga and Dar es Salaam, as well as in several rural areas.
In the transport sector, the EU recognises that the availability of efficient and affordable transport is a crucial condition for economic development and poverty reduction. The EU is therefore supporting the development of transport infrastructure, especially rural roads and regional transport corridors, and is strengthening the technical and institutional capacity of authorities to define and implement effective and sustainable policies and maintenance strategies.
Regional Cooperation with the East African Community
The European Union is a long standing partner of the East African Community. This includes support to economic, political and security integration, as well as enhanced cooperation in the management of natural resources.
EU support focuses on sustainable economic development in the region through the promotion of more integrated markets, and the development of investment and productive capacities. Under the 11th European Development Fund (EDF), the EAC Trade Related Facility (TRF) is to act as a mechanism to provide financial and technical support to EAC Partner States and to implement EAC trade-related agreements.
The development of regional infrastructure projects is crucial to the development of a competitive regional economic integration process. Current inefficiencies in this area are being addressed by a series of actions to reduce transport costs and boost intra-African trade; reduce energy costs and increase access, ensure water and food security and increase global connectivity.
To ensure peace, security and stability in the region, the EU supports the strengthening of electoral governance mechanisms, ensuring the smooth and safe running of elections in EAC partner states and building the capacities of national judiciaries, intelligence, law enforcement and border security agencies to combat and prevent terrorism and fight cross-border/transnational crime.
To improve the quality of inland water quality in the EAC region, support under the 11th EDF will focus on the construction of wastewater treatment facilities and the improvement of sanitation and water supply, as well as the enforcing and monitoring of aquaculture regional policy and water release policy.
EAC Resource Mobilisation: EU-EAC Regional Cooperation
Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Security
The European Union is a longstanding partner of Tanzania in sustainable agriculture, food and nutrition security. Cooperation over the last decade has focused on key commodities which offer opportunities for trade at national, regional and continental level.
Over 70% of Tanzanians are farmers. Agricultural development and transformation are drivers of growth in the country’s strategy to reduce poverty. The sector also offers great potential to strengthen commercial links with the EU. The main commodities are staple crops (maize, sorghum, millet, rice, wheat, beans, cassava, potatoes, bananas and plantains) and cash and export crops such as coffee, cotton, cashew nuts, sugar, tobacco, sisal, tea, cloves, horticultural crops, oil seeds, spices and flowers.
The sector has been supported by the EU through several programmes and instruments such as the “Trade and Agriculture Support Programme”, the “Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania” (SAGCOT) initiative, the “Food Facility", the Food Security thematic programme, the “EU Global Climate Change Alliance” initiative and the “Accompanying Measures for Sugar Protocol” (AMSP).
Under the 11th EDF National Indicative Programme for Tanzania (2014-2020), sustainable agriculture is featured as one of the three focal sectors of intervention. A balanced approach across geographical areas is, while integrating sustainable land and natural resource management, food and nutrition security and women empowerment in the sector.