The Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Zambia is responsible for managing official relations between the European Union (EU) and Zambia.
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These relations are conducted within the framework of the Cotonou Agreement, a global agreement signed in 2000 between African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States and the European Union. The cooperation between the two started in 1975 with the coming into force of the Lomé Convention, precursor to the present Cotonou Agreement. This is the year that the office of the Delegation of the EU was established in Lusaka.
The relations between Zambia and the EU are based on the EU Treaty. One of the purposes of EU policy in Zambia is to contribute to the general objective of developing and consolidation democracy, the rule of law and of respecting human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Development cooperation is one of the main aspects in Zambia-EU relations. The aim is to foster the sustainable economic and social development, Zambia's smooth and gradual integration into the world economy, in order to reduce poverty in the country. These objectives are confirmed in the ACP-EU Partnership Agreement, which is the binding agreement that governs the relations between Zambia and the EU.
Further, development assistance to Zambia is in line with the European Consensus on Development, the internationally agreed Millennium Development Goals and the aid effectiveness agenda. Along with other Cooperating Partners in Zambia, the EU is fostering coordination, harmonisation and alignment with the Government, through the Joint Assistance Strategy for Zambia – JASZ
EU-Zambia relations are further guided by the EU Strategy for Africa which provides a long-term, strategic framework for interaction between Europe and Africa through various institutions including the African Union, regional and national authorities. It defines how the EU can best support Africa’s own efforts to promote sustainable development and reach the Millennium Development Goals.
As a Least Developed Country (LDC), Zambia benefits from a variety of preferential market access initiatives such as the EU Everything-But-Arms initiative (EBA) under which Zambian goods exported to the EU enjoy a duty-free, quota free treatment.
The EU remains an important trade partner for Zambia, being its 3rd export top partner and its 4th major import partner.
The bilateral trade in goods for 2014 was at €810,119 million in 2014:
EU's imports from Zambia are mainly manufactured goods and commodities (metals, foodstuff, beverage, tobacco) whereas machinery, transport equipment and chemicals products are main EU's exports to Zambia. Zambia has opportunities to increase its exports to Europe. The country can also emerge as regional food exporter and logistics hub and develop long-term competitiveness of local mining supply cluster.
Zambia has definitive advantages to attract investors:
Starting a business is easy in Zambia: it takes now 6,5 days (while SSA average is 27,3 days). In terms of investors' perception, 2014 Bank of Zambia survey indicated that starting a business, employing workers and protecting investors got favourable evaluation of respondents, whereas getting credit, enforcing contracts and registering property were rated unsatisfactorily. The main concerns of investors included inflation, foreign exchange volatility, fuel prices, electricity costs, corruption and bureaucracy.
Zambian Development Agency was created in 2006 to facilitate investments in Zambia.
Zambia declared as well 6 areas as Multifacility Economic Zones and/or Industrial Parks.
The European Union is convinced that trade is vital for a country’s development. But in an increasingly competitive global landscape, some developing countries have been further marginalised, held back by lack of productive capacity, difficulties in diversifying their economy, poor infrastructure and export conditions.
In line with its Communication "Trade, growth and development", the EU seeks to ensure that its trade and development policies help developing countries, in particular, Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to benefit from increased trade opportunities.
In Zambia, the EU proposes a number of ways to improve the effectiveness of EU trade and development, including:
One of the EU Delegation's main activities is to support the Government of the Republic of Zambia realising its national development objectives.
For the period 2014-2020, the EU decided to make 484 million EUR available to assist the Government of the Republic of Zambia with the implementation of activities in the areas of Energy, Agriculture and Governance. The related National Indicative Programme for Zambia was signed by the Secretary to the Treasury Mr. Fredson Yamba and Commissioner Andris Piebalgs on the 10th of October 2014. The financial breakdown of the NIP over the focal intervention areas is as follows:
For the previous period from 2008 to 2013, an amount of 490 million EUR has been committed to fund activities primarily in support of the Zambia's Fifth and Sixth National Development Plans. The strategic approach is reflected in the Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative Programme (CSP-NIP), which is the result of negotiations with the Government of the Republic of Zambia, civil society, EU Member States and other Cooperating Partners. The European Union and the Government of the Republic of Zambia agreed to focus the EU's development cooperation on the sectors presented in the following pie chart:
The development programmes are financed under the European Development Fund (EDF), the main instrument for providing EU assistance to countries in Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP).
More detailed information on the activities in Zambia financed by the European Union can be found on the webpages of the following sectors:
Agriculture is a critical sector for poverty reduction and improved nutrition in Zambia, and support is provided through a number of avenues: direct support to the Ministry of Agriculture and to the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock under the Performance Enhancement Programme for Better Service Delivery to Farmers (PEP II), as well as direct grants for Non-State Actors active in the field. Currently, the EU is also working through the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to enhance Government efforts to increase production and productivity and to spread sustainable methods of cultivation, such as Conservation Agriculture (€11. million for 2013-2017).
Accounting for up to 20.2% of the total GDP and foreign exchange earnings and employing about 80% of Zambia's labour force, the agricultural sector is by far the main economic activity and the primary source of income and food for the rural poor. Moreover, given Zambia's abundant natural resource endowment with people, fertile land and water, the sector, widely acknowledged as the engine for national growth and poverty reduction, has the potential to play an important role in supporting economic growth and diversification and improved livelihoods towards the attainment of the country's long-term vision to become “a prosperous middle income nation by 2030”.
This objective is at the core of Zambia's sector policy framework that includes the Second National Agricultural Policy (SNAP) 2016, the National Agriculture Investment Plan (NAIP) 2014-2018 under the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), Vision 2030 and the Agriculture Chapter of the revised Sixth National Development Plan (R-SNDP) 2013.
The EU has supported Agriculture in Zambia through a number of programmes:
It started as early as 2006 through a €1.9million Conservation Agriculture Programme, which was implemented in Central Province of Zambia by Conservation Farming Unit – a specialized wing of the Zambia National Farmers Union (ZNFU).
Under Envelope B of the Zambia CSP/NIP, the EU supported the sector with €4.63million Urban Food Voucher Project implemented by the World Food Programme from 2009 to 2011.
Between 2009 and 2012, the EU supported the Zambian agriculture sector with €22.1million under the Food Facility instrument – a €1billion global fund which the EU provided to developing countries in order to mitigate the volatile agricultural commodity prices experienced in 2007/08. These funds were accessed by the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) to carry out the Farmer Input Support Response Initiative (FISRI) projects worth €16.9 million in 2009-2012. FISRI had a significant impact on farm productivity for instance maize yields increased from a meagre average baseline value of 1.1 metric tonnes per hectare to an average of 3.2 metric tonnes per hectare in the third year of practicing the approach. The Food Facility also supported four Non-State Actors that implemented projects worth €5.2million in over 50 districts country wide.
Moreover, the Food Security Thematic Programme provided structural support to food security including agricultural research, extension and Accompanying Measures for Sugar Protocol (AMSP) countries. The latter helped 18 countries, including Zambia, to adjust to the new sugar trade regime with the European Union.
In addition, there has been EU support to the sector through global commitments:
Under the 9th EDF, the EU promoted Agriculture Diversification and Food Security with a €15 million programme over the period 2006-10, by strengthening the capacity to implement and coordinate the National Food Security Strategy at central level; strengthening extension services operations at provincial district and camp levels; implementing Food Security enhancing activities at community level; and strengthening Non-State Actors (NSAs) in their capacity to cope with food insecurity.
Under the 10th EDF, the EU funded two main interventions. First, the Agricultural Sector Performance Enhancement Programme (PEP) amounting to €8.9million (2012 – 2015) provided the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock with capacity development support with a view to helping the Ministries strengthen their capacity to perform their regulating and coordinating role in the agriculture sector. The PEP contributed to tangible improvements in the following key areas:
Change Management and Service Delivery;
Sector policy, Planning and Financial Management;
Human Resources Management and ICT;
Monitoring and Evaluation.
The second programme is the €11 million Conservation Agriculture Scaling Up (CASU, 2013-2017) that builds upon the FISRI projects (see above). As under the latter, the Ministry of Agriculture has been playing a leading role in project implementation by giving policy directions and leadership in research and extension as well as by providing its country-wide extension network through which Conservation Agriculture technologies have been rolled out. See our story on Capacity4Dev on conservation agriculture.
The expected results of the CASU programme are:
Consolidating and expanding conservation agriculture in the country;
Improving skills in conservation agriculture for the extension workers and farmers;
Improving conservation agriculture farmer input and output supply chains;
Improving farmers' physical land management practices;
Promoting best international practice in environmental and gender issues.
In the context of the 11th EDF, Agriculture has become a focal sector of intervention for the EU Delegation. The financial envelope amounts to € 110 million over the period 2014-2020. The objectives of the programme are (i) to ensure higher and more sustainable income for rural households through increased private sector participation in the agriculture sector and the development of inclusive value chains; (ii) to improve nutrition and food security; and (iii) to improve environmental sustainability and climate change resilience through a cluster of four main pillars as follow:
1. Support to agribusiness through more equitable farmers' access to services and input/output markets as well as investment opportunities (with particular focus on small-holders)
2. Further promotion of sustainable and climate smart crop production and gender-sensitive land management practices
3. Development of small-holder irrigation systems and strengthening of water resources management
4. Reduction in malnutrition through increased production and consumption by rural households of nutritive and diversified food (with particular focus on women and girls)
The above-mentioned Performance Enhancement Programme for the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock for Better Service Delivery to Farmers is part of this envelop. With a budget of €10 million over 54 months, the project, designed to build upon the previous PEP (see above), was launched in January 2017 with a focus on extension, research and nutrition
Featured in the Seventh National Development Plan, Public financial management (PFM) is a key area for the functioning of the state, an essential part of the development process.
Sound PFM supports aggregate control, prioritization, accountability and efficiency in the management of public resources and delivery of services, which are critical to the achievement of public policy objectives, including achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. In addition, sound public financial management systems are fundamental to the appropriate use and effectiveness of donor assistance since aid is increasingly provided through modalities that rely on well-functioning systems for planning, budgeting and control.
Under the 11th EDF, the EU is currently developing a new programme in Support to Effectiveness and Transparency in Management of Public resources (EFFECT).
The overall objective of this EUR 17 million programme is to contribute to sustainable and inclusive economic growth through increased mobilisation and effective use domestic resources. The specific objective is to improve the accountability, transparency and effectiveness in management of public resources and increase domestic revenue mobilisation.
The EFFECT project is a combination of the continuation of activities currently being implemented under the 10th EDF (such as the support to the National Assembly) with new complementary activities. The expected results are as follows:
1. Parliamentary budgetary oversight function is reinforced
2. Oversight of public spending by the National Audit Office is improved
3. Operations of the Anti-Corruption Commission have improved and fight against corruption is reinforced
4. Planning, budgeting and management of public resources is improved
5. The revenue base is enhanced through improved domestic revenue mobilisation
EFFECT is part of the Annual Action Programme 2017 and its official approval is expected by October 2017.
In July 2013, the EU adopted the 'Support Programme to Public Finance Management, Accountability and Statistics', which focuses on the support to oversight institutions, increased revenue collection and the improvement of monitoring to enhance overall effectiveness of budget execution.
It is a €13 million programme under the 10th EDF, supporting four key areas:
The objective is to strengthen the National Assembly of Zambia (NAZ) in performing its role as the apex of the accountability process in PFM and the Budget. The NAZ is one of the longest functioning legislatures in the southern African region with a strong understanding of its role in the scrutiny of proposed appropriation and oversight Budget implementation. However, it faces a host of challenges both in terms of systemic constraints as well as related to organisational and human resources capacities.
Three main results to be achieved by the project team detailed as follows:
To know more about the Committee System in the NAZ, click here.
This project started in March 2015. It aims to establish a structured and systematic training and professional development programme for the government accountants and civil servants dealing with Public Financial Management, building upon the concept of "Training Programme for the Public Service" developed by the Cabinet Office. This project, financed to € 1 million by the European Union, is implemented by the Ministry of Finance with the Technical Assistance of experts recruited through Ecorys UK.
Funded by the EU to the amount of € 3.3 million, the project is part of an effort conducted in collaboration with other donors in the country – namely DFID and GIZ - to enhance a robust Management Information System at Government level. The objective is to improve the effective monitoring, evaluation and measurement performance of the national development plan and specific sector plans.
This project started in January 2015 and aims to strengthen the ability of the Ministry of Mines and Mineral Development (MMMD) to fulfil its mandate as mining authority. The objective is to enhance the capacity of the MMMD to monitor effectively mining activities and mineral production in Zambia and to share this information with other relevant governmental agencies – notably the Zambian Revenue Authority (ZRA) - in order to contribute to increase the domestic revenue mobilization. To that extent, an appropriate information management system for mineral production data has been developed. Existing systems and structures to collect and share mineral production-related information with other governmental stakeholders are being improved. Eventually, the MMMD organisational, planning and budgeting capacity will be enhanced.
The project has also procured analytical equipment for the Geological Survey Department laboratory.
The EU has supported the Transport sector for many years and remains one of the key cooperating partners still active in the sector together with the African Development Bank (currently the lead of the Cooperating Partners Group), the Japanese Cooperation Agency (JICA), the World Bank, the European Investment Bank, the Development Bank of Southern Africa, Agence Française de Développement and China. Since 1975, the EU has supported virtually all transport sub-sectors in Zambia, but more recently the EU-funded interventions focus on the road and aviation.
Energy has been identified as a focal sector for interventions under the 11th EDF and an allocation of 244 million EUR has been earmarked in the National Indicative Programme for Zambia for the period 2014-2020 to improve access to clean, reliable and affordable energy. More specifically, EU is currently supporting the rehabilitation of the Kariba Dam project, rehabilitation of the low voltage distribution network in the poor areas of Lusaka (combined with subsidy programme to support individual connections) as well as the programme promoting sector reforms and capacity building and access to renewable energy services and energy efficiency solutions, primarily in rural areas of Zambia.
Moreover, from 2014 the European Union is a chair of the sector Cooperating Partners Group in Zambia. The leading development partners in this area are Japan, the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the European Investment Bank, Germany through Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW), Sweden, Norway, USAid and Agence Française de Développement.
The financing instrument used to support this sector is the ACP-EU Water Facility, which was set up in 2004 to co- finance water and sanitation infrastructure, to improve water management and governance in the African Caribbean and Pacific countries and to achieve the Millennium Development Goal targets in the water sector.
Under the second Water Facility, with a total budget of €200 million for the period 2009-2013, the EU launched calls for proposals specifically aiming at: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion and Partnerships for Capacity Development in Water and Sanitation Sector.
Under these calls, three projects were selected for Zambia with a total EDF contribution of 8,1 million EUR:
• the already completed Copperbelt Water Operator Partnership Project that aimed at developing capacity of the eight Copperbelt water utilities (Water and Sewerage Companies based in that province) to serve Low- Income Communities,
• the already completed project targeting improved water and sanitation in peri urban and urban poor areas in Zambia through a dedicated basket fund co-financed by several partners including the Government of Zambia, and
• another ongoing project pooling the EDF grant with the support of the European Investment Bank to co-finance the expansion of water and sanitation connections to 15,000 residents in low income areas of Mulonga in the Copperbelt, as well as network upgrades to reduce the revenue losses to water utility.
European Union “hand in hand” with Civil Society
In 2012, the European Commission published “The roots of democracy and sustainable development: Europe's engagement with Civil Society in external relations", where it was stated that the EU and its Member States will develop country roadmaps for engagement with CSOs to improve the impact, predictability and visibility of our actions, ensuring synergies and consistency throughout the different sectors covered by the EU’s external relations.In 2014, the EU launched the “EU Country Roadmaps for Engagement with Civil Society” in all the countries around the world with the objective to lead to a more structured dialogue and to further improve collaboration between the EU, its Member States and CSOs. Within this context, the needs and priorities of civil society organisations, development partners, in particular EU Member States, as well as the government were assessed. For Zambia, the process was concluded in December 2014 with a roadmap and Action plan which covers the period 2015 - 2017.
The CSO roadmap for Zambia has three main priorities:
Enhance CSOs' capacities in project management, internal governance, fund-raising, monitoring and evaluation,
Enhanced CSO contribution to governance and development processes, improved interaction with Government,
Improved coordination between Delegation, EU MS and other international donors & joint support where possible.
From inception of the roadmap, the EU has convened a number of “share and learn” events with mainly Zambian CSOs. These events have been well attended and received by the participants. Topics such as policy engagement, resources mobilisation, governance issues, financial and contract management, monitoring & evaluation and evidence based research are discussed.
The European Union and a number of its Member States also work closely with the Zambian Governance Foundation in Zambia who provides capacity building to a number of Zambian and non-Zambian organisations, mainly in the areas of access to justice and media.
For 2017 learning, sharing and discussion events are planned for March and October, during which the CSO Map will be reviewed as well as its priorities. On May 13, the European Union Delegation in Zambia plans the organisation of a CSO Fair.
Projects in Zambia with Civil Society
Civil Society is an important consultation partner for the European Union, issues violence against women and children, media, elections, laws, access to justice and other issues related to governance and human rights are regularly discussed.
Insofar our financial support is concerned; in Zambia, we are currently contributing approximately €16 million in the following main areas: support to community schools, maternal and child health, family planning, media, elections, women’s participation, prisoner’s rights and access to justice with s specific focus on juveniles, children and women.
Through our project with the Zambian Governance Foundation we support and capacitate civil society organisations in Zambia in the area of access to justice, media and theatre.
In 2016 we concluded 4 new grant contracts in order to provide comprehensive and holistic approach to nutrition-specific and nutrition sensitive interventions in Zambia. In 2016 we also concluded a new partnership with NGOCC (Non-Government Organisations’ Coordinating Council), the umbrella organisation in Zambia which advocates and work on issues related to women empowerment and women’s participation in society. In the framework on this new partnership contracts with member organisations will be signed in March 2017 to work on issues related to advocacy, sexual and reproductive health and rights and women’s empowerment in the productive sectors such as agriculture.
During 2017 we will also finalise a new call for proposals aiming anti-discrimination.
Under the 10th EDF, the EU supported the Zambian Health Sector with a total amount of Euro 103 million. Between 2009 and 2013, Euro 35 million were disbursed as Health Sector Budget Support.
The remaining funds of Euro 68 million have been allocated to two major programmes (both started in 2013 and will continue until 2019) :
1. Programme to accelerate progress towards Millennium Development Goals 1c, 4 and 5, improving nutrition and maternal and child health. This is the MDGi programme which is implemented in close collaboration with the Government of Zambia and UNICEF - €50 million
The five main Expected Results (ERs) of the MDGi Programme are:
During 2017 a mind-term evaluation of the MDGi programme is carried out.
2. Health Systems Strengthening (HSS) programme - €18 million
The Health Systems Strengthening (HSS) programme aims at strengthening critical support functions of the Zambian health system, particularly in support of the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Zambia Medicines Regulatory Authority (ZAMRA) and Medical Stores Limited (MSL). The HSS Programme has 4 components: (1) Strengthening regulation and control of medicines and allied substances, and building the capacity of ZAMRA; (2) Improving the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of the pharmaceutical procurement and supply management system; (3) Progress towards rational drug use; and (4) Overall support/technical assistance/policy support to the Ministry of Health (MOH).In 2017, the construction started of a National Quality Control Laboratory for ZAMRA close to the road to the airport which we hope to have finalised by the end of 2018.
3. Other EU support to the Health sector in Zambia
The European Union (Commission and its member States together) is also a major contributor to the Global Fund against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, where it has provided more than 50% of the Global Fund's budget between 2001 and 2013. Given its role as major funder of the Global Fund, the European Union was asked to co-sign as a witness for 4 new Global Fund grants for Zambia in February 2015. The European Commission has pledged €370 million for the period 2014-2016, an increase of 10%.
The European Commission also strongly supports the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) for which it has contributed USD 113.5 Million over the period 2003-2016. The EU has made a new pledge of USD 200 Million for the period 2016-2020.
The European Union also support health research projects in Zambia. Most of these are funded through the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trial Partnership (EDCDP) which supports clinical development in sub-Saharan Africa of new or improved products against HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Many of these projects are with the University Teaching Hospital.
Under the 11th EDF Country Strategy/National Indicative Programme for Zambia, an allocation of €100 million has been set aside for supporting the Government of the Republic of Zambia in its work on strengthening Governance.
Governance as a focal sector for the 11th EDF will enable the EU's development cooperation to help create better conditions for inclusive, sustainable growth; more effective service delivery; more equitable access to services; and more opportunities for citizens – particularly women – to claim their rights, hold public institutions accountable, and participate in decision-making processes.
The main working areas are Electoral support, Access to Justice, Human Rights and more specifically women and children’s rights and Public Financial Management.
Electoral Support: the EU contributed €7 million to support the electoral cycle for the Elections which were held in 2016. The purpose of the action was to ensure that Zambian citizens take part in credible elections and that there is greater public participation in electoral processes (particularly women, youth and disabled). The programme's main objectives are to: 1) Increase the effectiveness of the Electoral Commission of Zambia to organise credible elections; 2) Increase transparency of and participation in electoral processes; and 3) Improve policing and coordination between ECZ and Zambian Police Force. The programme also supported civil society to organise civic and voter education before the elections, enhance women’s participation and carry out domestic observations. During the 2016 Elections the European Union also deployed a European Union Observer Mission (EUOM). During 2017, post-electoral support will be given to the Electoral Commission of Zambia and civils society to work on the recommendations made by the EUOM and further improve the electoral cycle. The EU works closely with other Cooperating Partners in this area.
Access to Justice : The EU, in close partnership with Germany, implemented through GIZ Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit) finances an access to justice project with an amount of €7 million. The purpose of the action is to improve justice delivery for all, and enhance respect for and protection and fulfilment of human rights. The programme's objectives are to 1) strengthened legal empowerment of rights-holders and access to legal assistance in civil and criminal justice cases whereby specific attention will be given to the differentiated needs, situations and requirements of women, children and persons with disabilities; and 2) to support policy and institutional frameworks reforms and coordination amongst stakeholders for efficient, effective and inclusive justice delivery. Main implementers of the programme are Zambian civil society organisations and a special focus is put on women and juveniles.
Women and children’s rights: the European Union is currently finalising a €25 million programme to prevent Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) and to support SGBV survivors. The porgramme will have three main components which will be prevention through the change of mindsets and behaviour, comprehensive support packages to survivors and institutional support at national, provincial and district level. The programme, which hopefully will kick off in 2018, will be implemented in Northern Province and Luapula Province.
Human Rights: For the period 2014-2017, the priorities set out for supporting CSOs in Zambia in the field of human rights through the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) are: reduction of gender based violence, addressing human rights conditions in prisons and anti-discrimination. During 2017, we will be finalising a call for proposal which aims at eliminating discrimination against disabled people, LGBTI people and people living with AIDS for which an envelope of €1,1 million has been made available.
Human Trafficking/Migration: the EU has been supporting the Zambian Government in the area of human trafficking since 2009. Since December 2012, the EU has contributed to the joint effort of UNICEF, IOM and UNHCR, to combat human trafficking and exploitation, with a particular focus on vulnerable migrants such as unaccompanied or separated children, the project ended in June 2016. The EU’s financial contribution to this amounts to €2 million. Main results of these project are :
Review of national laws and policies such as the Anti-Human Trafficking Act and the Immigration and Deportation Act
The development of various support tools, such as guidelines, trainer’s manuals and profiling forms to support front-line officials to better understand the needs of vulnerable migrants and to more respond to them.
The New Zambian Immigration Management Systems which has been deployed in three border control posts (Mwami, Kasumbalesa and Mpulungu) and three Regional Immigration Offices (Chipata, Kasama and Ndola).
The interview spaces at eight different locations have been improved or established.
A total of 344 beneficiaries, of which 127 children, have received protective assistance