European Union External Action

Moçambique & a UE

Situated in southern Africa and bordering the Indian Ocean, Mozambique has a population of 26 million and a land area of around 800,000 km², roughly equal to the combined area of Italy and Spain. After gaining independence from Portugal in 1975, Mozambique endured a long period of civil war that ended in 1992.

Most of the rural population survives on subsistence agriculture, making them vulnerable to these natural disasters. HIV/AIDS remains a major and growing problem, which is already having an impact on the economy and on development in all sectors.

Mozambique has been an example of reconciliation and reconstruction after the 1992 peace agreement put an end to a protracted civil war and established a multi-party democracy. 

Elections and political situation

After the signing of Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities between the Government and Renamo in September 2014, Mozambique held its fifth general elections on 15 October 2014. President Filipe Nyusi (ruling Frelimo party) won the presidential election with 57% of the polls against 36% for the Renamo leader Afonso Dhlakama and 6% for the MDM President Daviz Simango. Frelimo also won the legislative election (144 MPs against 89 for Renamo and 17 for MDM).

The EU deployed an independent Election Observation Mission (EU EOM) of 110 observers from 19 EU member states, Canada, Norway and Switzerland, across the country to assess the whole electoral process against international obligations.

The independent EU EOM published a detailed final report on the elections with findings and recommendations for future electoral processes on 17 February 2015. The EU Delegation will continue to promote sustainable Electoral by supporting country's efforts to improve Electoral law and to implement recommendations that have been singled out in various reports.

Economic situation

As regards the economic and social areas, the discovery of vast gas deposits off-shore and prospects for extensive coal mining should continue to contribute to an increasing flow of foreign investment, expand national revenues and boost the economy. The possibility of Mozambique becoming a middle income country by the end of the next decade is realistic, while the country's structural dependence on donors is expected to continue decreasing.

Moreover, Mozambique's current development model continues to be dependent on “mega projects”, which, alone, will not easily address all of the fundamental shortages in terms of infrastructure, energy, human resources and the financial system. In this regard the weakness of Mozambican SMEs and the slow development of the agriculture sector should also be addressed as a matter of priority as they require the definition and implementation of long term policies.

The above mentioned political, economic and social challenges remain important references for EU-Mozambique relations.

Development cooperation

Together with Member States, the EU contributes approximately two thirds of the country's international aid, estimated at some 20% of the national budget.

Mozambique is part of the EU-ACP Cotonou Agreement. The initial allocation for Mozambique under the 11th EDF (European Development Fund) National Indicative Programme (NIP for 2015-2020), signed in November 2015 by Commissioner Mimica and Vice-MFA Nyeleti Mondlane in Brussels, amounts to €734m in grants, and will focus on good governance and rural development.

On a regional level, Mozambique should, in the longer term, be one of the largest beneficiaries of the regional integration in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The country's geographical location is a considerable strength: a large volume of SADC goods transits through Mozambique, along corridors linking Mozambique's ports with neighbouring landlocked countries as well as parts of South Africa.

An Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) was recently signed by the EU and the SADC region, offering Mozambique duty-free and quota-free access to the EU market.

Legal framework

The legal framework of the relations between EU and Mozambique relations is provided by the Cotonou Agreement, signed in June 2000 between the ACP countries and the EU, covering a period of 20 years (2000-2020), with a revision foreseen every five years.

The Cotonou Agreement has at its core five interconnected guiding aims: 1) to enhance the political dialogue dimension between ACP and EU by developing peace-building policies, conflict prevention and resolution strategies, supporting good governance, and tackling corruption; 2) to promote a participatory approach and involve non-governmental actors in the implementation of the Agreement; 3) to reduce poverty; 4) to reinforce economic and trade relationships, in particular regional integration and partnership agreements between EU and ACP regions; and 5) to improve financial co-operation.

The partnership is centred on the objective of reducing and eventually eradicating poverty,

EU-Mozambique relations are structured in four main dialogues:

Political Dialogue

The EU holds regular political dialogue session with the Government of Mozambique, under Article 8 of the Cotonou Partnership Agreement. These provide a good opportunity for frank and informal discussions on a broad range of issues concerning the political, social and economic situation in the EU, in Mozambique, and areas of common interest. Besides these formal sessions, the EU has a permanent dialogue with the authorities of Mozambique, but also with the various political parties represented in Parliament and with representatives of the civil society.

Cooperation Dialogue

The EU political dialogue in the strict sense is enhanced by the scale of the EU's financial and technical development cooperation in Mozambique. Specific coordination on EU matters is conducted on an ad hoc basis, such as sharing of information, via EDF Committee, annual reviews and programming.

Interaction with other donors, including EU member states, is intensive and comprehensive in Mozambique. The DPG (Development Partners Group) meets once a month at Heads of Mission level, chaired by the UNDP and World Bank, dealing with matters of common interest to the donor community. Furthermore there is the G19 coordination mechanism, offering a platform for consultation and coordination between the Government and those donors that provide General Budget Support, the Program Aid Partners (PAPs).

Dialogue with the NAO

Relations with the NAO are frank and result-oriented and help ensuring good management and development of cooperation programs.

Exchanges with the NAO both at technical and political levels continued to be regular, in particular due to the preparation process of the Annual Action Plans of the 11 EDF National Indicative Program, the operational reviews and the ongoing 10th EDF NIP implementation and the PALOP-Timor Leste programming and coordination.

Dialogue with the Civil Society

As the ACP-EU Partnership Agreement (the Cotonou Agreement) emphasizes the importance of non-state actors in the development process, the Commission has been working towards increasing dialogue with civil society and local authorities in Mozambique. (include a link to the page on Civil Society Dialogue)

Agreements

Besides the Cotonou Partnership Agreement that regulates the relations between Mozambique and the EU, other agreements have been signed. For more information on Cotonou agreement, please refer to the chapter Legal framework under Political and economic relations.

In June 2009 the Government of Mozambique signed Interim Economic Partnership Agreement. For more information on that agreement, please refer to section Trade.

General context

Mozambique has recovered incredibly well -within about 20 years- of the nearly two decades of a devastating civil war. It started to reform its trade policy in 1987 with the Economic Rehabilitation Program which put in place market-based economic policies. Mozambique is member of the WTO since 1995 and of the SADC since 2008. Currently, the country is making continuous efforts to liberalize its economy, improve its business environment and investment climate, rebuild its economic infrastructure and invest in people. The recent discovery of natural resources opens up many opportunities for enhanced trade relations between the European Union and Mozambique.

The EU is also fostering the regional integration agenda of the country through its support to the SADC Secretariat but also to the tripartite (COMESA-EAC-SADC) process which is aiming at creating a free trade bloc covering their 26 countries."

Trade flows

The EU is a major trade partner of Mozambique, being its main export partner (30.9 % of exports in 2014) and the fourth import partner after South Africa (10.2 % of imports). After the EU, in 2014, the main other Mozambique trade partners are China (28.8% of exports, 17.4 % of imports), South Africa (20 % of exports, 26.5% of imports), India (5.7% of exports, 16.6% of imports) and the US (1.7 % of exports and 3.3 % of imports).

In 2014, Mozambique's exports to the EU represented on average about 30.9% of the country’s total exports worldwide (this percentage is mainly due to exports of aluminium to the EU).

Information on export requirements to the EU

The European Commission’s website for developing countries' exporters (Export Helpdesk) has recently been revamped to facilitate market access from developing countries to the EU. Besides information on import tariffs, import requirements and trade statistics, the site now offers details on the preferential arrangements in place between the EU and developing countries.

It also provides a series of helpdesk tools to further assist exporters in developing countries to take advantage of the export opportunities offered by these agreements. This is particularly interesting for SMEs who wish to export to the EU but are still unfamiliar with the Union’s import rules. This website is available in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese and the link is

http://exporthelp.ec.europa.eu

Among the services provided are:

  • Requirements and taxes (requirements to be met to import and market goods in the EU, internal taxes applicable in every EU country, and product-specific legal or market requirements).
  • mport tariffs and other import measures (such as quotas, import licenses, anti-dumping measures, etc.).
  • referential arrangements (the EU’s main trade arrangements with developing countries, documents that must accompany exports, and rules of origin exporters must meet).
  • rade statistics (trade flows between the EU and third countries).
  • inks (trade authorities (EU and national), international trade bodies, market places and business directories).
  • What's New (hosting the quarterly newsletters of the Export Helpdesk).
  • Contact (in order to lodge detailed questions).

Since its launch in 2004, the number of visits to the Export Helpdesk has constantly increased. Its main visitors are in Latin America, followed by Asia, the Mediterranean countries, and the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. The website is also widely used by European importers.

Details on the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA)

The SADC EPA negotiations were finalized in July 2014 with the SADC EPA Group comprising Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland.  Angola has an option to join the agreement in future. This agreement has still to be ratified to be applicable.

Until the agreement is ratified, Mozambique will have access to the European Market through Everything but Arms and the specific rules of origin of Everything but Arms will apply. The EPA Market Access Regulation procedures cannot be applied anymore.

Link to the SADC EPA text: http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/countries-and-regions/regions/sadc

Other useful links:

DG Trade / SADC relations: http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/countries-and-regions/regions/sadc/

DG Trade/Statistics Mozambique: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2006/september/tradoc_113422.pdf

Mozambican Tax and Customs Authorities:  http://www.at.gov.mz/por/Comercio-Internacional

Enhanced Integrated Framework/Mozambique: http://www.enhancedif.org/en/country-profile/mozambique

For questions, please contact:

Kaluwa Vergamota
E-mail: Kaluwa.VERGAMOTA@eeas.europa.eu

The 11th EDF (2014-2020) allocation is the main source of funds to support technical and financial cooperation with Mozambique. About half of the envelope is allocated to the Good Governance and Development Contract through General Budget Support (GBS). Roughly the other half is allocated to Rural Development and about 3% for support to Civil Society.

The EU regularly updates the information on its disbursements in the on-line database ODAMOZ:  http://www.odamoz.org.mz/

For more details on the specific activities financed by the Commission, please refer to separate chapters.

Good Governance and Development Contract

Mozambique has a long-standing experience with General Budget Support (GBS) programs since the early years 2000. This mechanism has been instrumental in setting up a comprehensive dialogue structure with the Government and the latest Budget Support Evaluation (covering 2005-2012) shows that GBS has been fundamentally successful in Mozambique, with positive contributions to critical priority sectors (e.g. Education) or reform processes (Public Financial Management reforms, submission of anti-corruption legislation).

Against the backdrop of a disappointing pace in reducing poverty (54.7% in 2009, latest available household survey), and with the expectation of large revenue inflows from extractive industries in the future (notably gas), a Good Governance and Development Contract (GGDC) operation provides an opportunity to focus dialogue on critical issues for the sustainable and inclusive development of Mozambique. Through policy dialogue, the European Union can engage with the authorities on addressing the challenge of preparing well for managing these resources, further strengthening Public Financial Management (PFM) systems, service delivery and public investment management, all geared towards the inclusive growth agenda, as well as improve transparency and governance at large, so as to fully benefit from this potential blessing. The need for a more strategic and focused GBS policy dialogue has long been recognized by all partners locally, and priority areas for a more focused dialogue have been agreed, in line with the themes above.

PALOP-TL and European Union Cooperation Programme

The five Portuguese speaking African countries (PALOP) - namely Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe - began cooperating in the 1970s and continued to work together after independence. In 1985 the PALOP countries joined the Africa Caribbean Pacific (ACP) Group. The first EU-PALOP regional cooperation program started in 1992. In 2007, Timor-Leste became the sixth member and the PALOP Group was then renamed PALOP and Timor-Leste (PALOP-TL).

Up to date, the areas which enjoyed continued support and larger financial resources are: Health (over €16M under the 7th and 9th EDF), Public Administration (€9.1M under 7th and 8th EDF), Judiciary Systems (€8M, 8th and 9th EDF), and Statistics (€7.8 M under the 7th, 8th and 9th EDF). 

Since 1992 a total of 23 projects have been financed:

Period

Programmes funded under specific European   Development Funds (EDF)

Amount M

1990-1995

Regional Programme 1 signed in 1992 / 7th EDF

25

1995-2000

Regional Programme 2, signed in 1997 / 8th EDF

30

2000-2007

Transfer of Regional Programme 2 from the 8th to 9th   EDF

(28.7 reported)

2008-2013

Governance Initiative, signed in 2008 / 10th EDF

33.1

2014-2020

Multi-annual   Indicative Programme, signed in 2015 / 11th EDF

30

TOTAL

 

118.1

 

The on-going 10th EDF PALOP-TL Cooperation program promotes a "Governance Initiative" with an allocation of €33.1M. It contributes to further reinforce democratic, social and economic governance through the implementation of 7 projects covering:  electoral assistance, economic governance and private sector, rule of law, public services, Macroeconomic and Financial Management Institute, as well as the support to the PALOP/TL coordination mechanism and a Technical Cooperation Facility to support the identification and implementation of actions.

Responsible   NAO

Project Title

Committed   Amount €

Starting /   ending years

Angola

Rule   of Law

 7.000.000

2013/2020

Angola

Macroeconomic   and Financial Management Institute

 3.000.000

2013/2019

Cape   Verde

Bettering   quality and proximity of Public Services

 5.000.000

2013/2020

Cape   Verde

Strengthening   Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs), National Parliaments and Civil Society for   the control of public finances in the PALOP-TL

 6.500.000

2013/2018

Guinea   Bissau

Support   to Electoral Cycles

 6.100.000

2009/2016

Mozambique

Technical   Cooperation Facility III

 2.700.000

2009/2020

Mozambique

Support   for the coordination of the PALOP-TL cooperation programme

 2.800.000

2013/2020

TOTAL

 

33.100.000

 

 

As regards the governance structure of the program, before 2007, the EU - PALOP Cooperation was implemented according to a Regional Indicative Program (RIP). The first PALOP RIP, with an allocation of € 25M (7th EDF) was signed in 1992. The second RIP, with € 30M (8th EDF), was signed in 1997. However, under the 10th EDF (2007-2013) no specific RIP was signed, the PALOP-TL program was financed by 4% from respective National Indicative Programs. The 10th EDF Country Strategy Paper was signed in Luanda, in May 2008, together with a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the PALOP-TL countries.

Since January 2006, Mozambique has been successively the "Regional Authorizing Officer" (RAO) under the RIP and then "Coordinating Regional Officer" (CAO) under the on-going 10th EDF PALOP-TL Cooperation program. Currently, each PALOP-TL countries National Authorizing Officers (NAO) is appointed as "chef de file", responsible for the project(s) and/or program (s) implemented and acting as a delegated authorizing officer.

The National Authorizing Officer (NAO) of Mozambique is in charge of the overall coordination of the Program. The PALOP-TL and the EU hold regular coordination meetings including ministerial meetings between the PALOP-TL countries National Authorizing Officers (NAOs) and the EU once a year, to give orientations to the programme and ensure its efficient implementation.

In accordance with EU development policy[1], good governance is a crosscutting principle for the 11th EDF PALOP-TL multi-country strategy. The programme will focus on employment generation, through income generating activities in the culture sector, mobility and inclusion. The component on governance capacity development will reinforce institutional capacity in policy areas of common interest, mobilizing expertise on demand in specific areas, between at least two PALOP-TL countries.

An empowered civil society is a crucial component of any democratic system and is an asset in itself. It represents and fosters pluralism and can contribute to more effective policies, equitable and sustainable development and inclusive growth. CSOs effective participation contributes to build more accountable and legitimate States, leads to enhanced social cohesion and more open and deeper democracies.

The European Union in Mozambique is engaged on promoting a conducive environment for the development of a strong and diversified civil society, on facilitating CSOs participation to governance systems and supporting citizen’ policy and service delivery monitoring, in accordance with EU policy in relation to Civil Society in third countries.

In order to better engage in dialogue and better plan interventions in a more strategic way, the EU has recently published a Mapping Study of Civil Society Organizations in Mozambique and elaborated a Joint Roadmap with EU Member States and other main international partners in Mozambique. This process led to the establishment of a Roadmap partners group which meets three times a year with the objective of following up roadmap priorities and indicators, discussing current CSOs “burning issues”, and dialoguing with CSO national platforms.

In terms of dialogue with the European Union, civil society is involved in different ways.  First of all, during meetings to discuss progress in implementation of EC-financed projects, such as Steering or Technical Committees – inevitably discussions take place on the relevance and appropriateness of government and EC policies. Secondly, in a regular or ad hoc way depending on the subject, the Delegation consult key informants through bilateral or group meetings, on sectoral policies, programming and political issues. 

In September 2012 and May 2013, the European Union adopted two Communications “The Roots of Democracy and sustainable development: Europe's Engagement with Civil Society in External Relations” and “Empowering Local Authorities in partner countries for enhanced governance and more effective development outcomes” which create a new policy framework and commitment towards Local Authorities (LA) and CSOs.

The thematic programme “Civil Society Organisations and Local Authorities 2014-2020” adopted in 2014 aims at contributing to the implementation of these two communications, recognising the local public sector role as policy- and decision- maker, and the fundamental actions of CSOs as watchdogs, advocates, partners to hold public authorities to account at all administrative levels, with a view to ultimately empower citizens. In Mozambique, this important participatory policy-making processes between LAs and CSOs, is the objective of a EU call for proposals every two years, to fund LAs’ and CSOs’ initiatives. 

Also, within the frame of ACP relations, the ACP-EU Partnership Agreement (the Cotonou Agreement) emphasizes the importance of NSAs and local decentralised authorities in the development process.

In Mozambique, Civil Society participates to and benefit from EDF thematic programmes in all fields of EU-Mozambique cooperation (infrastructure, rural development, nutrition…). The ongoing EU-10º EDF support programme to non-state actors (PAANE – Programa de Apoio aos Actores Nao Estatais) gives a broad range of non-state actors the opportunity to have a voice in the policy, advocacy and monitoring processes and to build a stronger dialogue with the Government. A new program is currently under identification according to the 11th EDF-NIP document, which foresees support to civil society as a complement to the focal sectors (Good Governance and Rural Development), namely to enable citizens to play their role in the budget cycle, monitor the provision of quality service delivery by the State, including at subnational level.

The European Union adopted in 2015 an Action Plan on Humans Rights and Democracy (2015-2019), to reaffirm the European Union's commitment to promote and protect human rights and to support democracy worldwide, with a special emphasis on ownership by, and co-operation with, local institutions and mechanisms, including national human rights institutions, as well as civil society, and by reinforcing its support to Human Rights Defenders. The Action Plan outlines plans for collaboration between the EU and local institutions in partner countries, and for targeted support and capacity building on the ground. It reinforces the commitment to the mainstreaming of human rights into all the EU's activities and policies (including in development co-operation, migration/asylum, counterterrorism and trade/investment) and to ensuring internal and external coherence and efficiency, as well as to promoting gender equality and women's empowerment.

The European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) is the concrete expression of the EU’s intention to integrate the promotion of democracy and human rights into all of its external policies. Its main beneficiaries are groups and individuals, the EIDHR also supports intergovernmental organisations that contribute to the implementation of the international mechanisms for the protection of human rights. Since 2007, through calls for proposals, the EIDHR in Mozambique has been funding specific projects to fight against gender based violence, to promote access to information and freedom of expression and strengthen the CSO´s capacity to monitor the implementation of key legislation. The last call for proposal was launched in 2015 and the next is foreseen for 2017 with an allocation of 900,000 EUR.

Worldwide, the EIDHR also set up a 24h/7days mechanisms to protect human rights defenders, providing direct emergency support and temporary relocation: https://www.protectdefenders.eu/

Gender and women’s rights

The EU aims at a world where the rights of girls and women are claimed, valued and respected by all, and where everyone is able to fulfil their potential and contribute to a more fair and just society for all.

In October 2015 a new EU Gender Action Plan (GAP II, 2016-2020) was adopted by the European Council, providing the framework for the European Commission's (EC), the European External Action Services' (EEAS) and European Member States' (MS) approach to gender equality through external relations. It aims to place gender equality and the empowerment of girls and women at the heart of the EU’s external actions, focusing on four areas:

  • Ensuring girls’ and women’s physical and psychological integrity
  • Promoting the economic and social rights / empowerment of girls and women
  • Strengthening girls’ and women’s voice and participation
  • Shifting the Commission services’ and the EEAS’ institutional culture to more effectively deliver on EU commitments.

The Delegation in Mozambique has been supporting through the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights specific projects for promotion of gender equality, empowerment of women and prevention of all forms of violence against women and girls, and has been active in supporting actions to end the practice of child marriage.

Currently the Delegation and the 13 Member States operating in the country are supporting the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Action (MGCAS) in the process of elaborating a Gender Country Profile.

The European Commission's Humanitarian aid and Civil Protection department (ECHO) aims to save and preserve life, prevent and alleviate human suffering and safeguard the integrity and dignity of populations affected by natural disasters and man-made crises.

Together, the EU and its Member States were the largest international aid donor and were at the forefront of the response to all major crises around the world.

Headquartered in Brussels with a global network of field offices, ECHO ensures rapid and effective delivery of EU relief assistance through its two main instruments: humanitarian aid and civil protection. By bringing together the two under one roof in 2010, the Commission has built up a more robust and effective European mechanism for disaster response both inside and outside the EU

Through its humanitarian aid and civil protection instruments, the EU provided substantial needs-based emergency assistance in 2014 for a total commitment of EUR 1 273 million and  approximately 121 million people affected by natural or man-made disasters, or protracted crises received help.

Humanitarian country context in Mozambique

Mozambique is a low-income least developed country (LILDC), with 70% of the population living below the poverty line. The poverty situation affects greatly to the existing vulnerabilities to disasters, as well as to the respective coping mechanisms. About 65% of Mozambicans live in rural areas and engage in small-scale rain-fed agriculture for the production of staple food and cash crops, as well as rearing livestock. The country's economy is based largely on agriculture, which employs roughly 80% of the country's population in mostly subsistence activities, which are often vulnerable to emergencies.

Humanitarian crises in Mozambique are recurrent almost every year and displacement of affected people is common. Mozambique suffers mainly form hydrological disasters, which affect the entire country: regular floods along its principal rivers, particularly in the Zambezi and Limpopo river basins; Cyclones affecting the country almost annually; and the southern and central regions of the country are the most prone areas for droughts. Health risks also exist in the country and for example Cholera is endemic in some areas. Endogenic disasters include lower level earthquakes. Potential violent conflicts, resulting to humanitarian consequences, they may be considered as a risk as the civil war ended in 1992 and as the political tensions in the central provinces are still present in the country.

Partners and other humanitarian actors

There exist three traditional groups of humanitarian actors in Mozambique:

  • The State and its Institutions: On a political level, Conselho Coordenador de Gestão de Calamidades, chaired by the Prime Minister, is the highest level Government coordination instrument of disaster response. Instituto Nacional de Gestion de Calamidades (INGC) is an autonomous and powerful institution as well as the most relevant state disaster management body. Its director also chairs the Conselho Tecnico de Gestão de Calamidades (CTGC), which is responsible of coordinating sectorial alert, early warning, disaster plans and reduction of vulnerability. INGC has central, provincial and district level contingency plans and they are comprehensive but likely unrealistic. Centro Nacional Operativo de Emergência (CNOE) handles multi-sectoral coordination and decision making structure. Additionally, the Government has Centros Operativos de Emergencia (COE) on provincial and district levels as well as Local Committees.
  • UN System: UNOCHA, together with the Resident Coordinator, coordinates the overall UN emergency system and humanitarian information management. Although all the UN agencies play a role in their respective sectors in disaster management, the following agencies have a special importance in a humanitarian situation, according to the life-saving mandate of specific clusters: WFP and FAO in Food Security; WHO in Health; UNICEF in WASH; and UNHCR in Shelter and assistance to refugees in dedicated camps.
  • Civil Society: Several important International NGOs, such as OXFAM, CARE and Save the Children, have an influential role in the Mozambican humanitarian sector; Local NGOs are not yet very involved in humanitarian relief, but some have focus on disaster risk reduction.
  • In addition to these three main groups, there are also several donor agencies, community-based organizations, faith-based organizations and privates sector, which all have an important role in an emergency management.

The Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) is a coordination instrument in the country, gathering different actors to discuss and decide about the humanitarian actions in a coordinated manner. In Mozambique, the humanitarian system is highly concentrated on central level and it largely depends on NGO information from the field. In June 2014 a disaster management law was approved by the Government, regulating a more decentralized approach.

EU Interventions

Through ECHO, the European commission finances programmes to respond to emergencies and Disaster Risk Reduction activities in Mozambique and the region since 2007.

In November 2015, when the first consequences of the El Niño effect became evident, the Commission mobilised 119 Mio € from the 11th EDF reserve + additional 6 Mio € from DG ECHO's own budget line. The funding was allocated to the Horn of Africa (€78 million), Southern Africa (€12 million), Central Africa (€20 million) and the Caribbean (€9 million).

Within its Humanitarian Implementation Plan (HIP) for year 2016, the following programmes are being supported by ECHO in Mozambique:

  • CARE-CONCERN, 1.4M€: Northern Mozambique Resilience to Disaster Project.
  • OO: To build resilience to shocks and hazards in target communities of 5 districts in Nampula and Zambezia Provinces.
  • SO: Increased community resilience to shocks and hazards such as droughts, floods, cyclones and epidemics through improved early warning systems and early action; water, sanitation and hygiene improvements; and rural livelihood protection.
  • Spanish Red Cross, 0.35M€: Consolidating and scaling-up disaster resilience in Mozambique
  • OO: To Contribute to consolidate disaster resilience in Zambezia province and scale-up good practices in urban areas of Zambézia and rural areas of Tete and Sofala province
  • SO: To enhance capacities of Governmental institutions and civil society groups in order to better assess, mitigate and respond to disaster risks in targeted districts and urban areas, and therefore, increase their resilience to disasters.

These projects have an inbuilt crisis modifier, in order for them to allow an initial crisis response in case necessary and while ECHO mobilizes a response financing decision.

In April 2016, the Commission mobilised an additional €173 million from the 11th EDF reserve to top up the initial El Niño package.  In addition to the €12 million allocated in December 2015, an additional amount of €40 million has been earmarked for Southern Africa to reinforce the humanitarian response to El Niño through regional calls.

With this additional funds, ECHO has launched in April 2016 a new regional call in order to prepare a second El Nino package for southern Africa region covering Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, Angola, Lesotho and Swaziland. The specific objective of the additional funds is to: mitigate food insecurity of the most vulnerable populations in Southern Africa. Main focus areas in Mozambique are the provinces of Gaza, Inhambane, Sofala, Zambezia, Tete.

Interventions funded under this amendment will focus on:

  • Multipurpose cash transfer to meet basic needs of affected populations during the 2016-17 lean season.
  • Support the 2016-17 agriculture season with timely delivery of farm inputs.
  • Protection of household assets, particularly livestock.
  • Treatment of under-nutrition and contribution to its prevention.
  • Protect development gains through crisis modifier mechanisms of resilience financial instruments.

Interventions should as well contribute to enhance preparedness of the targeted populations, improve early response mechanisms and also foster long-term development solutions.

How ECHO Functions

Since the Commission does not intervene directly on the ground, the humanitarian programmes are implemented through Partners organisations that share with the DG ECHO common general objectives.

The Partners organisations are selected among United Nations relief agencies, members of the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement, International Organisations (IOs), non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

Since its creation, ECHO has worked with its partners on the basis of Framework Partnership Agreements (FPAs), which set the principles of partnership, define the respective roles, rights and obligations of partners, and contain the legal provisions applicable to the humanitarian operations financed by DG ECHO.

In response to an emergency outbreak, ECHO partners having signed the Framework Partnership Agreement (http://dgecho-partners-helpdesk.eu/) receive an invitation to submit a proposal. Grants are awarded on the basis of the specific criteria, such as the technical and financial capacity, readiness and experience, and results of previous interventions (enumerated in Article 7.2 of the Humanitarian Aid Regulation).

The current Framework Partnership Agreement entered into force on 1st January 2014 for a period of 5 years.

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On a global level, EU also finances an ACP-EU Natural Disaster Risk Reduction Programme with €60 million (until 2017). It is a trust fund under the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery Track II (GFDRR). The Programme is implemented in Joint Management with the World Bank Group, through GFDRR and EU is in the Steering Committee. It is meant to improve the resilience of ACP countries to the impact of disasters produced by natural hazards and better prepare populations in disaster-prone areas, thereby reducing the cost of response. The priority areas are: (a) mainstreaming of DRR; (b) risk identification and assessment; (c) Early Warning Systems and communications on DRR; (d) risk financing and (e) integration of DRR into recovery.

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