Chad is one of the poorest countries in the world. It receives European Union (EU) aid in the political, economic and commercial domains, as well as development aid and humanitarian aid.
Chad suffered political instability until 2009, but a dialogue between the presidential majority and the opposition began from 2006. In 2007, this finally led to an agreement with a view to strengthening the democratic process. This agreement, for which the EU played an important role as a facilitator, was the basis for the legislative reform and the establishment of an electoral administration, which allowed elections to be held in 2011. On 2 April 2013, a political agreement protocol was signed by the political players (majority and opposition) and the representatives of civil society to create the National Framework for Political Dialogue; his agreement led to the launch of the new electoral cycle. The electoral process began with the enrolment of Chadians abroad, then those inside the country, by the Independent National Electoral Commission in 2015. The presidential election other was held on 10 April 2016 and the opposition contested the result of the vote. President Déby Itno was re-appointed for a 5th term at an investiture ceremony on 8 August 2016. No date has been given for the legislative elections.
However, in terms of respecting human rights, the confrontations have had harmful consequences. A committee of inquiry, particularly supported by the European Union, worked to uncover the exactions which accompanied these events, and to determine accountability. Today, Chad has signed the main international and regional agreements on human rights, but they have yet to be fully and properly applied.
Two kamikaze attacks on 15 June and 11 July 2015 in the capital, N'Djamena, killed dozens of people and injured around a hundred others. To suppress the perpetrators, backers and accomplices of the kamikaze attacks (which are considered acts of terrorism), the government submitted a bill for a law to combat acts of terrorism for examination by the National Assembly on 30 July 2015, which was subsequently adopted. The law for the suppression of acts of terrorism is characterised by backward steps, particularly the questioning of the abolition of the death penalty and very long custody periods. To apply this law, presumed backers and accomplices of the N'Djamena attacks were sentenced to death by the Chadian courts and shot.
Following the presidential election of 10 April 2016, around 60 soldiers disappeared because they did not vote according to the instructions of their superiors. Others were arrested and tortured and some presumed disappeared soldiers were presented on national television. Nevertheless, a certain number of families remain without news of their lost members. The public prosecutor at the N'Djamena High Court announced the abandonment of the judiciary inquiry concerning the presumed disappeared persons.
The EU has also supported projects for the professionalisation of the media and their consolidation in the public debate, particularly through the thematic European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) programme and the Instrument for Stability - Rapid Reaction Mechanism (IFS-RRM).
Despite a relatively stable internal situation since 2009, Chad remains a fragile country, in addition to being exposed on almost all of its borders to conflict zones and/or hotbeds of insecurity. The forces of order have implemented many security measures around the country, and a state of emergency was declared in November 2015 in the Lake Chad region. The improvement of the security context in Chad still requires progress.