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General background: relations between Algeria and the EU have strengthened since an Association Agreement came into effect as part of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (2005).
In the political area, the Agreement covers dialogue on all issues of interest to the parties. This dialogue occurs at different levels:
Other technical sub-committees set up under the Agreement address other areas such as migration, internal affairs, justice, social affairs, etc.
Since 2013, Algeria has also been involved in the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). It is under this framework that the partnership priorities between Algeria and the EU have been jointly established for the 2016-2020 period.
Priority policy themes:
General background: support for economic transition and diversification and for economic trade constitutes a key component of the cooperation with Algeria. Under the Association Agreement (AA), in force since 2005, this economic cooperation takes place for example through several mechanisms involving both parties (talks on the economy; several theme- and sector-based sub-committees). The EU also finances a range of programmes aimed at supporting Algeria’s efforts in different areas of the economy. The first evaluation of how the AA is operating was conducted in 2009; a second evaluation is currently underway.
In 2014, an agreement established the general principles for Algeria’s involvement in EU programmes (the agreement can be found at: http://www.joradp.dz/FTP/jo-francais/2016/F2016015.pdf).
In terms of economic diversification, the current programmes aim to support the implementation of the 2005 Association Agreement and the development of the fisheries sector. The objective is to:
Since 2014, under the Single Support Framework 2014-2017, new programmes have been under preparation, including:
More information on projects can be found at:
These programmes are in addition to those already underway in the areas of:
In parallel, twinning programmes between public administrations together with specific targeted actions serve to boost cooperation. In addition to this extensive cooperation between the parties, there are also activities under regional projects.
More information available on the ENPI Info Centre website.
The energy sector is an important component of the economic relations between the EU and Algeria. Algeria is in fact the third largest supplier of natural gas to the EU. The EU and Algeria have therefore signed a ‘Memorandum of Understanding’ for the establishment of a partnership. The main priority of this partnership is to facilitate and promote European investments in the natural gas, renewable energy and energy efficiency sectors.
Since the end of 2015, two groups of EU-Algeria experts on gas, renewable energies and energy efficiency have been working in these areas. Several meetings are expected to take place to discuss and decide on new cooperation efforts to be undertaken here.
The EU is Algeria’s biggest trade partner and receives almost two thirds of its exports. In monetary terms, the trade between them increased 136 % between 2002 and 2014, primarily due to greater levels of petroleum and gas product exports. It reached €43 billion in 2015, down 4.6 % on 2014.
Algeria and the EU share a common geographical area, the Mediterranean, and are linked by close economic, trade and cultural ties. However, relations in these areas remain unbalanced:
EU and Algeria cooperation therefore aims to reduce these imbalances. It depends on both Algeria’s capacities to put the funds and instruments made available to it by the EU to effective use and Algeria’s political will to move more towards European principles of development.
The cooperation instruments
An estimated 90 000 Sahrawi refugees are living in five camps south of Tindouf. The climate in this region is extremely harsh. Access to basic services (food, water, healthcare, housing and education) is limited there. To survive, the Sahrawi refugees depend largely on international aid.
Since 1993, the EU has contributed €220 million (€9 million allocated for 2016) in aid to meet these basic needs: