Elections and political situation
Mozambique has been an example of reconstruction since the 1992 Rome Peace Agreement ending a 16-year civil war. The country´s first democratic elections were held in 1994 and electoral processes have been regular ever since. The country´s sixth elections were held in October 2019 and, as in previous polls, the EU deployed an independent Election Observation Mission (EU EOM).
Claims by the main opposition Renamo about the ill implementation of the 1992 peace agreement resulted in sporadic clashes mostly in Central Mozambique involving the government forces, Renamo´s militarized armthus affecting stability. The EU has been supporting dialogue for peace and stability which resulted in the signing of the Definite Peace Agreement in August 2019.
Mozambique is one of the most dynamic economies on the African continent, with considerable growth rates. Fundamental shortages in terms of access to basic social services, infrastructure, energy, skilled human resources and the financial system remain hurdle block.
The country's development is linked to the recent huge gas discoveries and the full exploitation of other existing natural resources, but also to a coherent diversification agenda that involves agriculture transformation. As regards the economic and social areas, the discovery of vast gas deposits off-shore should continue to contribute to an increasing flow of foreign investment, expand national revenues and boost the economy.
The EU holds regular political dialogue sessions with the Government of Mozambique, under Article 8 of the Cotonou Partnership Agreement. This provides a good opportunity for discussions on issues concerning the political, social and economic situation in the EU, in Mozambique, and areas of common interest. Besides these formal sessions, the EU has a permanent dialogue with the authorities of Mozambique, political parties represented in Parliament and with civil society. The last political dialogue meeting was held in June 2019.
Legal framework and Dialogue with the National Authorizing Officer (NAO)
The legal framework for EU and Mozambique relations is provided by the 2000 Cotonou Agreement, signed in between the ACP countries and the EU, covering a period of 20 years. Work is underway in preparation of the post-Cotonou era, with the partnership centered on the wider objective of fighting poverty.
NAO's office - its main role is to ensure the effective and efficient implementation of programmes funded by the European Union. The NAO of Mozambique is the Minister of Foreign Affairs, supported by a technical team and is the official signatory to all operations financed by the EU. Besides the Political dialogue, EU-Mozambique relations are also structured in other dialogues:
The current donor coordination structure in Mozambique is the result of various reforms in the last years carried out in view of simplifying it. Besides the 11 EU Member States with local representation, namely Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden, the main players include the Unites States, Canada, Switzerland, Norway, Japan, the United Nations, the Bretton Woods Institutions and the African Development Bank. UN agencies are highly prominent in the country, some of which are partnering with the EU in implementing important projects.
The European Union, together with its Member States, is the main donor in Mozambique and contributes approximately two thirds of the country's international aid, estimated at some 20% of the national budget. The EU seeks to ensure that cooperation with the country promotes sustainable development and supports the consolidation of the country's peaceful path towards democracy. EU development assistant to Mozambique is in line with the country's priorities.
Donor's Coordination Platform (DCP) Technical and financial coperation
Established in November 2016, this platform is an informal development partners' setting, represented at the level of Heads of Cooperation for all traditional bilateral and multilateral donors support.
Technical and financial coperation
The 11th EDF (2014-2020) allocation is the main source of funds to support cooperation with Mozambique. The EU regularly updates the information on its disbursements in the on-line database ODAMOZ.
The European Development Fund (EDF)
The initial allocation under the 11th European Development Fund (EDF)´s National Indicative Programme (2014-2020) for Mozambique amounts to €734 million in grants and focuses on good governance and development and rural development. The EU is committed to the principle of ‘ownership’, meaning that partner countries are fully involved in the process of developing the strategies and programmes which affect them.