Delegation of the European Union to Brazil

Brazil and the EU

11/05/2016 - 15:08
EU relations with Country

The European Union (EU) and Brazil have a long-standing relationship covering areas such as political cooperation, the economy, trade, investment, climate change and the Mercosur integration process.

Brazil and the EU share a long-standing relationship based on strong cultural, historical, political and economic ties based on shared core values. In fact, Brazil was one of the first countries to establish diplomatic relations with the EU. In the 1960s, the two parties exchanged formal diplomatic Missions. The EU together with twenty-three EU member states currently have a diplomatic presence in Brasilia.  

In 2007, the EU and Brazil formalised their role as key global partners through the establishment of the formal EU-Brazil Strategic Partnership. The new partnership was launched at the 1st EU-Brazil Summit held in Lisbon in 2007.

This partnership covers a range of issues including:

  • human rights
  • environment and climate change
  • sustainable energy
  • sustainable development
  • economic and financial issues,
  • information society
  • support to EU-Mercosur relations
  • stability and prosperity in Latin America.

Summits provide progress

These summit meetings have proved to be effective in strengthening political dialogue and cooperation between the two sides. So far, seven editions of the summit have taken place.

The 7th EU-Brazil Summit was held in Brussels in 2014. It focused on three key areas: how to accelerate economic growth and job creation, how to tackle global challenges such as climate change and cyber security and how to cooperate more effectively on foreign and security policy issues.

Political and Policy Dialogues

To date, in the context of the Strategic Partnership, regular dialogues have been set up in over 30 areas such as political issues and human rights; foreign affairs, multilateral issues, cyber security, environment and climate change; culture and education; maritime and air transport; energy; and science and innovation. 

Examples of recent High Level Political Dialogues include the following:

Political dialogue and foreign/multilateral affairs:

  • The 6th meeting of the High Level Political Dialogue between Brazil and the European Union (EU) took place in Brasilia on November 19th, 2019. The delegations had an open and constructive exchange on a wide range of subjects, including the evolution of bilateral relations and their strategic partnership. Priorities for the new Brazilian Government as well as perspectives for the new European Commission have been discussed, alongside with global and regional issues. Both parties reaffirmed their commitment to the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement.
  • On the 7th EU-Brazil High-Level Political Dialogue which took place by videoconference on 18th December 2020, the two Delegations had a very open and fruitful exchange on a wide range of subjects, including the state of play of bilateral relations, defence, trade policy, environmental and security matters, as well as on regional and multilateral affairs. They exchanged views on the current situation regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, and agreed to continue the bilateral dialogue and cooperation on the ongoing sanitary crisis, as well as on the economic and social recovery process in both regions.

In the area of human rights:

  • The 8th High Level Dialogue on Human Rights which took place in Brussels on 9th October 2019, which provided a renewed opportunity for a wide-ranging exchange of views on bilateral and multilateral matters, including strengthening the rights of women and LGBTI, issues of racism and discrimination, the rights of indigenous peoples, human rights defenders, as well as persons with disabilities and other topics of mutual interest.
  • The 9th EU-Brazil Human Rights Dialogue took place by videoconference on 1st December 2020. It constituted a renewed opportunity for a wide-ranging exchange of views on bilateral and multilateral matters, notably strengthening the rights of women, minorities and vulnerable groups, such as indigenous peoples, ethnic minorities, LGBTI persons, migrants and refugees and human rights defenders. The two parties also addressed the issues of freedom of expression, freedom of religion or belief, business and human rights and the protection of the right to health, access to information and other fundamental freedoms in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Both sides also emphasised the importance of a safe and enabling environment for civil society.

The Human Rights Dialogues are usually preceded by a EU-Brazil Civil Society Seminar which gathers European and Brazilian civil society representatives and addresses the current situation and best practices related to human rights in the European Union and Brazil, making recommendations for the Dialogue. A civil society representative then usually presents and discusses the Seminar’s conclusions and recommendations with the representatives of the EU and Brazil during the Dialogue.

The 8th and most recent High Level EU-Brazil Environmental Dialogue took place by the means of a video conference on 16th October 2020 and focused on key environmental aspects of the bilateral and multilateral relations, with biodiversity, forests, and water and waste management figuring prominently in the discussions.

EU-Mercosur Association Agreement

Negotiations for the conclusion of an Association Agreement between the European Union and the four founding members of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) started in 2000, on the basis of Council negotiating directives of 1999. Currently, EU-Mercosur relations are governed by the 1995 Interregional Framework Cooperation Agreement. The Association Agreement  aims to further cement the strategic partnership between the EU and Mercosur countries in key areas of joint interest such as climate change, building sustainable global value chains and promoting digital development. Following the conclusion of negotiations in June 2020, both parties are preparing the conditions for ratification. 

The European Union and Brazil have cooperated closely since the COVID-19 pandemic started in early 2020. Brazil assisted with the repatriation of thousands of stranded, non-resident EU citizens at the onset of the crisis.

The EU cooperates with Brazil on a green, digital and inclusive recovery from the crisis caused by the pandemic. Team Europe supports about 70 actions to the tune of approx. 23 million Euros in grants ranging from emergency relief to the containment of the pandemic, which are complemented by 635 million Euros in loans by European financial institutions to support emergency aid and the economic recovery of micro and small enterprises. Furthermore, the EU Civil Protection Mechanism (UCPM) has been activated based on requests for assistance by Brazil; offers for medicines used in the treatment of COVID-19 were made by EU Member States.  

With 3 billion Euros of support, the EU is committed to meeting global vaccination targets within COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX), and has donated vaccines to Latin America, including Brazil.

 

Economic relations between the EU and Brazil have developed through the summit process, through macroeconomic dialogues, bilateral exchanges between the EU and Brazilian authorities as well as through cooperation in multilateral fora, such as the G20. For example, the 7th EU-Brazil Summit, held in 2014, identified strong, balanced and sustainable economic growth and job creation among the key areas of cooperation. Regular macroeconomic dialogues between the EU and Brazil provide a useful forum for open exchange of views about the EU and Brazil's respective economies, macroeconomic policy issues and global economic challenges.

EU-Brazil Macroeconomic Dialogues

The macro-enonomic dialogues typically involve the European Commission and several ministries (economy, finance, trade and international affairs) and the national central bank on Brazil's side. The dialogues aim at having an open discussion about the EU and Brazil's respective economies and global economic challenges and are a forum for exchanging views on key aspects of the global policy agenda, including G20. The 9th dialogue took place in February 2021 in a virtual format. Discussions cantered around EU and Brazil's macroeconomic outlook and the policy response to the Covid-19 crisis as well as G20 priorities. As a special topic during the dialogue, sides exchanged information on the EU Green Deal and Brazil's central bank's sustainability agenda.

EU Trade Policy

The EU Commission communication “Trade Policy Review - An Open, Sustainable and Assertive Trade Policy”, adopted on 18 February 2021, sets out the EU trade strategy for the coming years.

Reflecting the concept of open strategic autonomy, it builds on the EU's openness to contribute to the economic recovery through support for the green and digital transformations, as well as a renewed focus on strengthening multilateralism and reforming global trade rules to ensure that they are fair and sustainable.

The EU's trade policy focuses on three core objectives:

  • Supporting the recovery and fundamental transformation of the EU economy in line with its green and digital objectives;
  • Shaping global rules for a more sustainable and fairer globalisation;
  • Increasing the EU's capacity to pursue its interests and enforce its rights, including autonomously where needed.

More information on the EU trade strategy.

Bilateral trade and Investment

Brazil and the EU are significant trading partners.

  • The EU is Brazil's second-biggest trading partner, accounting for 15% of its total trade, and Brazil is the EU’s twelfth -biggest trading partner, accounting for 1.5% of total EU trade (2020).
  • EU imports from Brazil are dominated by primary products, in particular vegetable products (23.5% of EU imports from Brazil), followed by mineral products (23.1%) and foodstuff, beverages and tobacco products (18.5%) (2020).
  • Brazil is the second largest exporter of agricultural products to the EU (2020).
  • EU's exports to Brazil consist mainly of machinery and appliances (28.8%), products of the chemical and allied industries (26.8%), and transport equipment (10.2%) (2020).
  • The EU is the biggest foreign investor in Brazil with investments in many sectors of the Brazilian economy. In 2019, the EU direct investment stock in Brazil reached € 319 billion, making it the third country in terms of accumulated EU foreign investment, only below the US and Switzerland.

More information about the EU-Brazil investment relationship.

Brazil’s import restrictions

Brazil is one of the countries that have resorted to a high number of potentially trade-restrictive measures according to the European Commission's latest report.

The EU encourages Brazil to reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers, and to promote a stable and more open regulatory environment for European investors and traders.

Trading with Brazil

Rules and requirements for trading with Brazil

Eurocamaras

Founded in 1999 by the European Chambers of Commerce in São Paulo, Eurocamaras is the most representative organization for this business community, and represents today all together more than 5.000 European industries and companies in Brazil. Eurocamaras is the Brazilian recognized Partner of Eurochambres, which represents national chambers in 46 countries and gathers 2.000 local and regional chambers.

Eurocâmaras Yearbook

International Cooperation

The EU and its Member States and Brazil have a shared interest in fostering cooperation in many crucial areas such as economy, trade & investments, science, technology and innovation, environment and climate action, clean energy, as well as human rights, security and defence. Cooperation actions are pursued at bilateral, regional and multilateral level, including to face global challenges and to uphold common values.

Since 2007, EU cooperation with Brazil is based on the EU-Brazil Strategic Partnership and priorities embedded in EU-Brazil bilateral declarations and policy dialogues. The allocation of funding for cooperation and development initiatives is mainly provided by means of grants to projects and programmes under several EU financial instruments.

Due to its middle-income income status, Brazil was graduated[1] from bilateral cooperation under the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) for the period 2014-2020.  Nonetheless, the EU and Brazil enjoy of a very comprehensive cooperation portfolio in many areas, in the context of a series of instruments and mechanisms:

  • Brazil actively participates in the Regional cooperation programmes for Latin America (DCI 2014-20) such as those on environment and climate change (EuroCLIMA); governance, social inclusion, gender (EUROSOCIAL+); security and justice (El Pacto, EUROFRONT); higher education (ERASMUS); investments (LAIF -Blending Facility for Investments) and international cooperation (ADELANTE – under preparation).
  • Brazil is also part of the EU action to support civil society, democracy and human rights, as well as the environmental and climate change agendas under the DCI EU Thematic Programmes for 2014-202  and EIDHR:
  • Civil Society Organisations and Local Authorities;
  • Global Public Goods and Challenges
  • European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (link is external) ;
  • The Partnership Instrument: support to sectoral policy dialogues for the exchange of technical experiences through public, private and civil society actors. Since 2015, over 100 EU-Brazil cooperation projects of different magnitudes have been launched under this Instrument in many areas of interest for the Union (ie energy security, climate change, environmental protection, renewable energy, antimicrobial resistance, urbanization, food waste and circular economy, economic diplomacy, market access, corporate social responsibility, public and cultural diplomacy, etc.).(see below for more information)
  • European Investment Bank

Other instruments for international cooperation open to Brazil during the period 2014-2020:

EU-Brazil cooperation for 2021-27

For the period 2021-27, a new Neighbourhood Development International Cooperation Instrument (NDICI)-Global Europe has been set-up with a financial envelope of over EUR 3.4 billion for Latin America and Caribbean. The Instrument is articulated around regional and country Multiannual Indicative Programmes (MIPs). In addition, the region will benefit from thematic funding focusing on Human Rights, Conflict Prevention, Peace and Stability and Global Challenges, as well as delivering on rapid response and foreign policy needs.

The above-mentioned Regional Multi-Annual Indicative Programme (MIP) for the Americas and the Caribbean will contribute to the EU’s overall strategic objectives for its external action, as laid out by the European Commission (2019-2024)[2] and the Global Strategy for the EU’s Foreign and Security Actions. The priority areas have been defined as follow:

  1. Green transition
  2. Digital transformation
  3. Sustainable and inclusive economic recovery
  4. Democratic governance, security and migration
  5. Social cohesion

The EU will also strengthen synergies and effective cooperation with other actors, including regional organisations (the Organisation of the American States, Pacific Alliance, Mercosur, etc.) and multilateral institutions to respond to the needs of citizens in both sides of the Atlantic and address key challenges for the region.

Within the NDICI-Global Europe framework, two bilateral Team Europe-Brazil Initiative are currently under preparation:

  1. A Team Europe-Brazil Initiative on the Green Deal with sub-initiatives on Tropical Forests and on Sustainable and Smart Cities;
  2. A Team Europe-Brazil  Initiative on Digital Transformation.

The Team Europe approach is a setting where the European External Action Service, the EU Institutions, the Member States, the European Investment Bank, European financial institutions, development agencies, and stakeholders will work in a more coordinated, targeted approach to deliver on the EU’s geostrategic priorities in a visible, transformative and impactful way.

Cooperation in the amazon basin:

The current portfolio of EU financed actions includes 54 projects related to conservation and sustainable use, and indigenous people’s right in the Amazon, including Brazil. The total amount of these initiatives is about € 166 million. A new Team Europe Initiative (TEI) Amazon Basin is under preparation in the context of NDICI-Global Europe to support Amazon countries, including Brazil, to protect and sustainably develop the region and related biomes. The first financing decisions under this Initiative are  foreseen in 2021, and will focus on the use of Copernicus data for forest fire and deforestation monitoring and the protection of indigenous people. As part of this TEI, various EU Member States contribute to the new Amazon Fund of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).

Foreign Policy instruments (FPI)

Since 2014, FPI manages two instruments in Brazil: the Partnership Instrument (PI) and the Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP). The Delegation in Brazil, hosts the FPI Regional Team Americas.

FPI’s work encompasses a number of areas of key interest to the Union. It addresses major global challenges such as energy security, climate change and environmental protection. It supports the external dimension of EU internal policies, as well as specific aspects of the EU’s economic diplomacy to improve access to third-country markets by boosting trade, investment and business opportunities for European companies. Finally, the FPI action supports public and cultural diplomacy, academic and think tank cooperation and promotes the Union’s values and interests through outreach activities.

In Brazil, the FPI continues, despite new challenges, the work on climate change, supporting the implementation of the Paris Agreement, antimicrobial resistance and urbanization, as well as creating new spaces to discuss use of natural resources (circular economy, renewable energy and energy transition) and responsible business conduct. Gender equality and human rights continues to be a focus through several actions. Brazil should remain a key partner of the EU regarding environment and climate change related matters. Although the current administration is challenging, actions in these particular topics are designed in a flexible manner so that dialogue could be sustained with various level of government (cities and states) or type of stakeholders like the business sector.

The trade package grew robustly, especially supporting the market access team, the successful implementation of a pioneer action on fair and ethical trade and the launching of the corporate social responsibility/responsible business conduct action. The Mercosur agreement ratification process has opened up an area with great potential for cooperation.

Some important achievements of FPI actions in Brazil have been: a) engaging in several pertinent and visible action on gender violence and human rights (people with disabilities and human rights defenders); b) supporting the awareness raising efforts of the Government on fake news by making available EU expertise on this subject; c) sustained work on Climate Diplomacy, Food Waste and Circular Economy.

Despite the changing and challenging political climate in Brazil, FPI continues to expand its network of stakeholders and it is currently gathering increased attention from governmental, private and academic stakeholders. The municipalities and the private sector in particular are currently turning into strong partners for PI actions of various sectors (Low Carbon, Urban cooperation, environment and climate change, gender equality, etc.).

FPI has also expanded its activities of Public Diplomacy to engage as much as possible in dialogue with other audiences such as students, youth, academia, to also compensate for lagging dialogue with institutional counterparts.

The European Union is also actively engaged in the response to the current crisis in Venezuela and has mobilised its Foreign Policy Instruments to support the most affected neighbouring countries as well as regionally coordinated efforts. 

Cooperation on the Venezuela migration and refugee crisis

As part of wider regional efforts in response to the crisis in Venezuela, the European Union continues to support Brazil’s efforts to receive Venezuelans refugees and migrants. The EU is providing both financial and technical assistance to the most affected host countries. At the Solidarity Conference organised by Canada in June 2021, the EU pledged EUR 147 million, in addition to the ongoing aid package of EUR 319 million allocated since 2018. In Brazil, EU funding, channelled through UNHCR and other UN agencies, focuses on supporting Brazil’s efforts to receive, protect and integrate Venezuelan communities and respond to COVID-19.

An ongoing intervention through UNHCR is integrated into the Brazil’s “Operação Acolhida” to receive, register and redistribute migrants in Brazil. Almost 100,000 Venezuelan refugees/migrants were provided with documentation assistance. Large anti-xenophobia campaigns contributed to appease tensions along the border. In response to COVID-19, the EU has also contributed to improve the health response in the Northern States of Roraima and Amazonas and the inclusion of Venezuelan refugees and migrants.

European Investment Bank (EIB)

Brazil has a Framework Agreement since 1994. Since 1994, the EIB has signed 52 operation with both public and private counterparts (excluding regional projects) totalling EUR 4486.9m, including climate action projects related to renewable energy, energy efficiency, sustainable transport, water and sanitation.

 

[1] “Graduation” refers to the rise from lower middle income to upper middle income country status according to the OECD classification. Graduated countries are no longer eligible for Official development assistance (ODA).

[2] https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024_en

 

Science Technology and Innovation

The EU's Research and Innovation (R&I) policy is the third in EU budgetary terms and makes a concrete contribution to its foreign policies. The EU will continue to promote international cooperation through its R&I Framework Programme Horizon Europe (2021-27) with a budget of ca €95.5 billion. Horizon Europe is structured on three pillars: Excellent Science, Global Challenges & European Industrial Competitiveness and Innovative Europe

In May 2021, the European Council adopted its new STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) international cooperation strategy Global Approach on Research and Innovation, which outlines a more strategic approach to R&I topics with EU's partners around the world, preserving openness, whilst promoting a level playing field and reciprocity underpinned by fundamental values. With this, the EU aims to take a leading role in supporting multilateral research and innovation partnerships, and to deliver innovative solutions to make our societies green, digital and healthy. The Communication was endorsed by Ministers in Council Conclusions on 28 September 2021.

EU-Brazil cooperation in STI

STI cooperation between the European Union and Brazil is one of the pillars of the strategic partnership between the two regions, and is covered by the governmental Cooperation Agreement on Scientific and Technology in force since 2007. This agreement is expected to be renewed in 2022.

The purpose of the arrangement is to encourage, develop and facilitate cooperative activities in areas of common interest such as Green Transition, Digital Transformation, Global Health and Innovation. The last  10th EU-Brazil Joint Steering Committee meeting took place on 24 March 2021. Both sides acknowledged the central role of research and innovation in the overall EU-Brazil Strategic Partnership. EU and Brazil highlighted the importance of enhanced bilateral and multilateral cooperation, with a focus on green, sustainable and digital transition and global health, in the context of the EU research and innovation programme Horizon Europe (2021-2027).

In addition, a Cooperation Agreement between Euratom and Brazil. which is in force since 2013, promotes join work in the field of fusion energy research. More information about the cooperation agreements and additional information can be found here.

Under Horizon 2020, Brazil currently ranks first among the LAC countries, with a total of 162 participations in 104 grants. There are 82 collaborative projects/consortia with Brazilian participation, out of which 46 grants received EU contribution of €9.7 million in total. The areas of common interest under science and technology cooperation are marine research, health (including Zika and COVID-19), transport (including aviation), space, nanotechnology and nanosafety, sustainable urbanization, biofuels and Mission Innovation challenge no.4, research infrastructure, information and communication technologies, social sciences and humanities, bioeconomy and environment.

COVID pandemic: research on Covid-19 was the main focus cooperation in research and innovation endeavours since the pandemic broke out. Cooperation in diagnosis, treatment and vaccines covered various interactions, information exchange, twinning of projects, participation in the Commission emergency calls and multilateral collaborative platforms

R&I activities encompass also the researcher's mobility programme through the Marie-Skłodowska Curie Actions (MSCA) and also on the European Research Council (ERC). The programme includes all EU Member States and 16 Associated Countries, and one of its priorities is “Openness to the World”. This broad and multilateral approach aim at addressing EU commitments to international objectives such as the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, COP on Climate Change and in others multilateral fora. So far, about 600  Brazilian researchers have been supported through a Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant; as well as cutting-edge research: 9 top researchers of Brazilian nationality obtained a European Research Council grant and 34 Brazilian researchers participate in ERC-funded research teams in Europe.

STI cooperation in Brazil is developed in close collaboration with a number of stakeholders at federal and state level  (i.e. the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communications - MCTIC), as well as with funding agencies as the National Council for S&T Development (CNPq), the Funding Authority for Studies and Projects (FINEP) and the National Council of Research Supporting Foundations (CONFAP), together with States' Research Supporting Foundations (FAPs).

Education

Academic cooperation between the European Union and Brazil is traditionally solid.  In Erasmus+, there have been more than 2,400 mobilities between Brazil and the European Union since 2015. This represents one fifth of all the mobilities with Latin American and Caribbean countries.  These projects include more than 200 different Brazilian organisations. Brazil is the world’s most awarded nationality for Erasmus Mundus scholarships, which allowed more than 800 Brazilians to undertake a full joint master degree in several EU countries.  The 2021-2027 Erasmus+ programme features an enhanced international dimension, with new actions available for Brazil in the field of Vocational Education and Training.

The EU and Brazil are jointly engaged in addressing issues relating to information and communication technologies (ICTs) to the Digital Economy. Since 2010 periodic ICT Dialogues between EU and Brazil are taking place alternatively in Brussels and in Brazil. In 2019, the 11th edition of the EU-Brazil Dialogue on Information Society took place in Brussels. The joint statement covered aspects such as research and innovation, innovation and digital entrepreneurship, regulatory matters, digital markets.

Over the last 10 years we have made significant progress and substantive achievements in this prominent area of cooperation. More than 20 research and innovation projects involving an estimated number of 200 partners from EU and Brazil were funded representing an investment of 25 MEUR by the EU complemented by an equivalent amount by Brazil. These projects address a number of areas of great relevance in digital technologies and their application to address societal problems in health, mobility, energy efficiency, and urbanisation.

The 10th anniversary of the EU-Brazil Dialogue also marked an upgrade in our cooperation on digital matters. The “digital” became so pervasive that it impacts almost every aspect of our daily life that EU and Brazil are engaged in a more systematic dialogue about mutual policies and initiatives dealing with the digital transformation. Among the areas of interest are:

  • regulation of electronic communications (e.g. fixed, mobile, broadband Internet, net neutrality)
  • digital platforms
  • audio-visual and media services
  • copyright
  • data economy, including free flow of non-personal data and personal data protection
  • digitisation of industry and advanced manufacturing
  • the EU initiative on High Performance Computing
  • cyber-security
  • digital technologies – e.g. 5G, Internet of Things, big data, cloud computing,
  • applications of digital technologies in areas of societal relevance smart cities and urbanisation, health (including Zika virus and COVID-19), mobility, energy, environment

A programme of regular contacts is being established bringing together not only representatives from the Brazilian government, the European Commission and Member States but also from sectoral stakeholders – research institutes, regulatory entities, experts from academia, companies - to promote exchanges of views, share experiences, identify issues, establish priorities, propose follow-up actions.

ELLALINK, a new High-Speed optical fibre Submarine Cable linking Europe and Latin America was inaugurated in June 2021: BELLA project (link is external) (Building the Europe Link with Latin America) is a strategic action that aims to provide long-term interconnectivity for European and Latin American research and education communities strengthening connectivity between Latin America and Europe ensuring high capacity, cost effective capacity, shorter routes to stimulate data-sharing across the Atlantic. This is a fundamental infrastructure for the development of the digital economy for both sides. By reducing latency by up to 50%, ELLALINK is helping to prepare the two continents for a new age of digital cooperation.

Brazil is a strategic partner country for the EU on security cooperation. On 11 April 2017, Brazil signed a strategic cooperation agreement with Europol which entered into force in December 2019, and subsequently a liaison officer was deployed at Europol’s Headquarters, in The Hague. The EU is engaged in cooperation with Brazil concerning issues related to drugs and organised crime through the ongoing regional and trans-regional programmes: The Europe Latin America Programme of Assistance against Transnational Organised Crime (El PAcCTO), the Cooperation Programme between Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union on Drugs Policies (COPOLAD III), the Global Illicit Flows Programme and EUROFRONT which aims at improving security, protecting human rights and promoting social and economic development at both the national and regional level in Latin America. All of these programmes tackle issues such as demand/supply reduction; alternative development; early alert systems; public health; drug precursors; cooperation on the criminal chain from police investigations, judicial proceedings to detention; trans-regional cooperation of law enforcement and criminal justice authorities on trafficking routes; ethics and integrity, money laundering; support to the Police Community of the Americas AMERIPOL; and border management.

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