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Understanding the science of climate change, helping to develop strategies to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and safeguarding the Arctic environment are part of the EU’s wider efforts in relation to the Arctic.
The EU is committed to contributing to sustainable development in a balanced and integrated manner.
The EU engages in multilateral, regional and sub-regional cooperation on Arctic matters. Many Arctic matters relate to the Arctic as well as to lower latitudes.
Find out more about the Arctic.
EDU-ARCTIC focusses on using Arctic research as a vehicle to strengthen science education curricula all across Europe. It aims to encourage students aged 13 to 20 to pursue further education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), setting them on a path to perhaps one day work in one of these sectors.
The project will focus on developing, comparing and evaluating the effectiveness and environmental effects of different oil spill response methods in a cold climate. In addition to this we will be developing a system for the real-time observation of underwater oil spills and a strategic tool for choosing oil spill response methods.
EU-PolarNet is the world’s largest consortium of expertise and infrastructure for polar research. From 2015-2020, EU-PolarNet will develop and deliver a strategic framework and mechanisms to prioritise science, optimise the use of polar infrastructure, and broker new partnerships that will lead to the co-design of polar research projects that deliver tangible benefits for society.
The International Network for Terrestrial Research and Monitoring in the Arctic (INTERACT) aims to build capacity for identifying, understanding, predicting and responding to diverse environmental changes throughout the wide environmental and land-use envelopes of the Arctic. This is necessary because the Arctic is so vast and so sparsely populated that environmental observing capacity is limited compared to most other latitudes.
ICE-ARC will look into the current and future changes in Arctic sea ice – both from changing atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The project will also investigate the consequences of these changes both on the economics of the area and globally, and social aspects such as on indigenous peoples.
The Arctic, our planet´s icy last frontier for millennia, has recently become a hot spot in every possible way. Representing 6% of the planet’s surface, eight Arctic states -Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States- share an immense territory that is now at the centre of the geopolitical chessboard due to its economic potential and strategic importance. However, the Arctic is at the same time a fragile environment: home to over four million people –including 700.000 EU citizens and over 40 different indigenous ethnic groups-, it is warming at almost twice the global average rate, while its summer sea ice has decreased by more than 40% since 1979.
Concerned about this delicate scenario, the European Union is leading efforts to keep a safe, stable, sustainable and prosperous Arctic. The integrated EU policy for the Arctic focuses on three main priorities: advancing international cooperation in responding to the impacts of climate change and on promoting and contributing to sustainable development in the region.
“The Arctic is often not well understood. The image that comes to people´s minds is a polar bear on melting ice. What does not quickly come to mind is that you have vibrant cities and communities, industrial parks, universities…Therefore, saying that no economic development can take place in the Arctic is not an option. But we promote a sustainable development”, said the EU Ambassador at Large for the Arctic, Marie-Anne Coninsx, in a recent interview.
Yet beyond the abstract concepts, how does the EU Arctic policy look like on the ground? The EU Arctic Forum, taking place in Umeå (Sweden) on 3-4 October, offers a good opportunity to assess the recent developments and the challenges ahead. From trailblazing scientific research and Green Energy initiatives to Connectivity, support to Arctic SMEs and applied EU Space policies, dozens of EU-funded projects focusing on a wide range of issues are currently operating in the region. Here are five of the most representative examples of what the EU is doing in the remotest place on Earth.
The Arctic’s permafrost coasts make up 34% of the world's coasts. However, this permanently frozen submarine ground is warming up much faster than expected, with worrying consequences for our planet. As permafrost thaws, it is reshaping the Arctic landscape, affecting to local communities whose livelihood depends on marine resources, and releasing carbon gases that fuel global warming.
EU Horizon 2020-funded Nunataryuk project –a word meaning “land to sea” in Inuvialuktun, a native language from northwestern Canada- has brought together high-ranking European and international specialists of the Arctic coast to find a solution to this pressing challenge. Their main goal: to determine the impacts of thawing permafrost on the global climate and local population and develop targeted and co-designed adaptation and mitigation strategies.
Nunataryuk is part of the EU Arctic Cluster, a network of Horizon 2020-funded projects that currently involves 11 research initiatives addressing a broad spectrum of climate change mitigation and adaptation issues.
The European Commission's Earth Observation Program satellites have many applications, including some that are helping to maintain Arctic’s sustainable ways of life. Arctic indigenous peoples have practiced reindeer herding for thousands of years. Every spring and autumn, reindeer herders migrate with their animals hundreds of kilometres between their summer and winter pastures. However, climate change is turning the spring melt even less predictable, making it more difficult for them to find potential migration routes and areas where snow cover has already disappeared. Copernicus satellites currently provide reindeer herders with daily satellite-based snow cover maps that help them deepening their understanding of the changing Arctic.
At the same time, the EU is funding regional projects focused on Internet of Things (IoT)-based solutions to track reindeer herds, which have traditionally roamed freely the tundra and forests. Thanks to wireless collars wore by the animals, their owners can monitor their location and well-being in real-time.
The Arctic region and its shipping routes. Source: Arctic Council.
Elderly people aging in remote and sparsely populated areas in European Arctic regions face two challenges: long distances and limited resources. To tackle these obstacles, the EU-funded RemoAge project is supporting them with service packages that include family carers, healthcare staff and digital solutions offering direct, personalized assistance in their daily life.
The programme, set up in collaboration between partners from Sweden, Norway, mainland Scotland, the Western Isles, the Shetland Islands, Faroe Islands and Northern Ireland, is specifically targeted to frail older people, including those with dementia. RemoAge is one among the over 100 projects included in the Northern Periphery and Arctic 2014-2020 programme, supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).
Being an entrepreneur in an extreme environment like the Arctic can be challenging. This is why the European Union funds several projects helping Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to develop and expand their business activities.
One of them is Northern Cereals – New Markets for a Changing Environment (CEREAL), a transnational cooperation project aiming to help farmers in remote regions to better adjust to climate change and increase sustainability to boost local cereal production. Warmer growing conditions, improved varieties and technologies, and growing concerns about sustainability are creating new opportunities for a greater cereal production in northern areas. Knowledge transfer among the partners -coming from Iceland, Northern Norway, Faroe Islands, Scotland and Canada- is crucial for a project that has already contributed to increase the numbers of farmers producing high-value cereal products in these regions, thus boosting local employment, incomes and consumer choice in rural areas.
Another example of a project supporting Arctic local economies is ARCTISEN -‘Culturally Sensitive Tourism in the Arctic’-, an EU-funded initiative that supports start-ups and SMEs offering innovative tourism products and services. Its main goal is to expand tourist interest in the Arctic, which will bring “unforeseen opportunities to maintain local livelihoods and lifestyles”.
Gender-aware-business support is another priority of the EU Arctic policy. The W-Power project, also part of the Northern Periphery and Arctic programme, counts with €1.3 million to support new women-led starts-ups across the Nordic and Arctic region.
Plastic fishing nets stranded in the rock in Norway. Source: Circular Ocean.
Declining Arctic traditional fishing communities are facing a threat to their way of life and beautiful wildlife: plastic fishing litter reaching their coastlines in ever-increasing quantities. What could be done? The EU-funded Circular Ocean project has come up with a solution: using these old plastic fishing nets and ropes, which represent 10% of marine waste, to develop smart ‘green’ industries. This waste is a potential resource for many industries, as it can be incorporated into different products, from clothing to skateboards.
The project, funded by the European Regional Development Fund, is contributing this way to clean up the environment and recycling marine waste while breathing new life into these remote Arctic economies.
The European Commission Directorate General for Research and Innovation (DG RTD) has elaborated a booklet which outlines key aspects of ongoing EU-funded Arctic research and innovation.
In their foreword to the booklet, HR/VP Mogherini and Commissioner Moedas stress a.o. that understanding and responding to Arctic changes requires joint efforts by the global community.
A safe, stable, sustainable and prosperous Arctic is important not just for the region itself, but for the European Union and for the world. The Arctic can be a gateway to cooperation across many issues and partners. The EU actively supports endeavours undertaken in that spirit, which is the basis of the EU’s Arctic policy. Secondly, we need to increase our knowledge of Arctic changes.
Investigations into the causes, mechanisms, consequences and evolution over time are the main subjects of Arctic research. Consequently, over the last decade, the EU has increased its investments in Arctic research and innovation, resulting in a EUR 70-million budget for the period 2018-2020.
Europaparlamentarikerne begynte Norgesbesøket i Oslo, hvor de møtte utenriksminister Ine Marie Eriksen Søreide og forsvarsminister Frank Bakke-Jensen, Etterretningstjenesten, ledende Stortingspolitikere og forskere fra NUPI og Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt.
Fra Oslo gikk reisen videre til Bodø, hvor delegasjonen møtte representanter fra Forsvarets operative hovedkvarter, Luftforsvarsbasen og Hovedredningssentralen i Nord-Norge. Her lærte deltakerne mer om hvordan nordområdene er blitt en stadig mer sentral del av norsk sikkerhets- og forsvarsinnsats.
I Tromsø møtte delegasjonen Arktisk råd, Kystvakten og Norsk Polarinstitutt.
Siste stopp på besøket var Longeyarbyen. Her møtte representantene først assisterende sysselmann for å diskutere Norges forvaltning av området, før de tok turen innom Universitetssenteret på Svalbard. Turen ble avsluttet med en utflukt om bord på Norges nye forskningsfartøy Kronprins Haakon, hvor delegasjonen fikk se og oppleve effektene av klimaendringer i nord på nært hold, samt et besøk til Svalbard satelittstasjon.
The Forum is chaired by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE) and brings together representatives from:
• the Governments of the Kingdom of Denmark with the Faroe Islands and Greenland, Finland, Sweden, Iceland and Norway;
• the regions of North and East Finland, North and Middle Norrland in Sweden and North Norway, which are members of the Northern Sparsely Populated Areas (NSPA) network; and
• the Saami Council.
The work of the Forum is summarised in a dedicated report setting out the views of the Arctic stakeholders on where investments are most needed in the Arctic and how EU funding for the region can be improved. The report was presented to Commissioner Vella on 19 January 2018 at a special meeting of the ASF.
The conclusions of the report will feed into preparations for the next long-term EU budget (after 2020). The publication of the report marks the formal completion of the ASF’s work. The Forum will continue to meet regularly to facilitate the exchange of views between the Arctic stakeholders and the EU institutions.
Starting in 2018, the European Commission (DG MARE) will also organise an annual Arctic Stakeholder Conference to strengthen collaboration and networking between stakeholders to improve capacity building, international project development and awareness of financing sources.
Recordings of the web streaming of the event can be found here:
The Arctic Stakeholder meeting of 19 January 2018