Political and Security
(I) Political engagement: towards a "New Deal"
The EU’s objective in Somalia is to contribute to the establishment of a peaceful, stable and democratic country, trigger sustainable development and eradicate the root causes of piracy and other transnational crimes. The EU has consistently been implementing a comprehensive approach based on active diplomacy and support to the political process, security support, development assistance and humanitarian aid.
The year 2012 marked the beginning of a new era in Somalia following over two decades of internal conflicts and absence of a functioning central government. The transition came to an end with the adoption of a Provisional Constitution and the establishment of a more representative Federal Parliament that elected a new President on 10 September 2012. With the appointment of a new Prime Minister on 7 October 2012, the new leadership has led to renewed optimism on the future of Somalia, and presents opportunities for greater peace and stability, reconstruction and development, regional and international integration.
The Somali Government has called for a paradigm shift on the way the international community works with Somalia. The President has called up on donors to engage in Somalia in direct partnership with the Government. The EU has taken this opportunity to move towards a partnership approach with Somali partners. This entails a broader type of engagement: the EU Ambassador to Somalia ensures a constant presence and dialogue with the leadership and the people of Somalia, and for the first time, the EU will be supporting directly Somali led national strategies and programmes while awaiting the "Transition Compact" that should be presented in Brussels in September 2013.
The EU contributes to the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), which plays an essential role in securing the country on its path towards lasting peace, prosperity and stability. The EU has provided financial support to AMSIOM since the start of the mission in 2007 amounting today to a total of 411 million EUR.
Support to AMISOM is a key pillar of the EU's comprehensive approach to Somalia, as AMISOM is delivering the security needed to govern and bring development to the country. It creates indeed the basic conditions for the Somali people to live their lives in safety, pursue economic activities and rebuild their country. The EU support covers costs such as troop allowances, costs of the police and civilian component of the mission, medical care, housing, fuel, and communication equipment.
AMISOM provides the space for dialogue and reconciliation in Somalia and protects key infrastructure to enable the new federal institutions to carry out their functions to serve the public. It also assists in the implementation of the national security strategies, providing training and monitoring support to disarmament and stabilisation, as well as creating the security conditions for the provision of humanitarian assistance.
2. EU TRAINING MISSION SOMALIA
On 7 April 2010, the EU launched a military mission to contribute to the training of Somali security forces, "EUTM Somalia". The Third Mandate was approved in January 2013 and after successfully training around 3000 Somali soldiers in Uganda, the mission is now moving into a new phase.
For the third mandate, which will run until early 2015, the Mission will assist with the continued development of the Somali National Armed Forces through mentoring and advising within Somalia and conducting some specialist training. The specialist training will initially continue to take place in Uganda but is planned to move all activities to Somalia by 2014.
The Mission is conducted in close coordination with the partners of the EU, including the Government of Somalia, Uganda, the African Union, the United Nations and the United States of America.
(III) Counter-piracy and maritime security
The European Union is concerned with the continuing impact of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia on international maritime security and on the economic activities and security of countries in the region. As a result and as part of a comprehensive approach, the EU has launched European Naval Force Somalia - Operation ATALANTA (EU NAVFOR - ATALANTA) within the framework of the European Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) and in accordance with relevant UN Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR) and International Law.
Through Operation Atalanta, EU NAVFOR's aim is to protect vulnerable World Food Programme and AMISOM shipping, and to deter, prevent and repress acts of piracy. EU NAVFOR has had a 100% success rate in protection of WFP Vessels.
The European Union launched in July 2012 a new civilian mission, EUCAP NESTOR, under the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) in order to enhance the maritime capacities of five countries in the Horn of Africa and the Western Indian Ocean.
EUCAP NESTOR's main objectives are:
- To strengthen the Rule of Law sector in Somalia, with an initial focus on the regions of Puntland and Somaliland. The mission will mainly support the development of a coastal police force and the judiciary.
- To strengthen the sea going maritime capacity of Djibouti, Kenya and the Seychelles. The mission will be extended as soon as possible to also support Tanzania.