EU-Mexico TRADE RELATIONS
Trade relations between the EU and Mexico are governed by the Free Trade Agreement in force since 2000, which has allowed significant growth in bilateral trade and has acted as a catalyst for investment flows. Market access is by far the reason why the FTA was negotiated; when NAFTA entered into force, the EU's market share dropped 50%. As for Mexico, it sought to attract further FDI and reduce its economic dependence on the US. Since then, the FTA has served as a powerful instrument to foster a closer co-penetration of both economies. It reinforced Mexico's position as an export-oriented manufacturing center, with guaranteed preferential access to the world's both largest markets, and its average yearly investments flows have tripled. It also contributed to raising the country's competitiveness, not only thanks to the diversification of its trade in goods but also thanks to the liberalization of trade in services.
|• Total trade: 65 billion in 2014
• The EU is Mexico's third trade partner
• Mexico is the EU's 15th trade partner
• Main EU exports to Mexico: machinery & transport equipment, chemicals and manufactured goods.
• Main Mexican exports to the EU: machinery & transport equipment, mineral fuels, lubricants and manufactured articles.
• Trade in services amounted to € 11.4 billion in 2013 (2014 stats not available yet)
• Accumulated FDI flows since 2000: $ 145 billion USD
EU-MEXICAN TRADE RELATIONS IN NUMBERS
EU-Mexico trade amounted to 65 billion USD in 2014 (with a significant surplus for the EU of 24.1 billion USD), which represents a 3.2% increase compared to 2013. EU exports totaled 44.6.1 billion USD while Mexican exports to the EU reached 22.6 billion USD. The growth in total EU-Mexico trade since 1999, just before the FTA, was signed amounts to 247%(237% for EU exports to Mexico and 272% for Mexican exports to the EU). The EU's share in Mexico's trade at 8.1% in 2014 was slightly lower than before the global crisis erupted (9.4% in 2008), as the recovery from the crisis has been slower for EU-Mexico trade than with other partners. The EU was surpassed by China for the second consecutive year, to become Mexico's third largest trading partner last year. The EU remains the 2nd source of foreign direct investment with over 39% of Mexico's accumulated FDI since 2000.
EU exports to Mexico: 45 billion USD in 2014
In 2014, EU exports to Mexico amounted to 44.6.0 billion USD, 3.3% above their level in 2013 and 237% above their level in 1999.
The most important product groups remain the same as always, although their share varies slightly: industrial machinery represented 23% of all exports, followed by electric equipment (14%) auto sector (10%) and refined oil (7) . On the whole, the EU plays an important role as a provider of capital goods and intermediate products which enter into the production processes of assemblers frequently exporting to the US and other destinations. The large trade deficit Mexico has with the EU is thus largely offset by its surplus with the US.
EU imports from Mexico: 20.4 billion USD in 2014
EU imports from Mexico amounted to 20.4 billion USD in 2014, 3.2% increase compared to 2013 and 272% above their 1999 level. The main product group was fuels and mining products (33% mainly crude oil), followed by transport equipment, although its exports dropped 11% compared to 2013), industrial machinery (12%) and electric equipment (10%). Apart from oil and unlike most other Latin American economies, Mexico is primarily a supplier of manufactured goods and not a raw materials provider.
EU Investment in Mexico: USD 145 billion USD accumulated flow in 15 years (2000–14)
European investment has been historically important in Mexico. Since the FTA came into force, the average yearly investment flow originating in the EU has tripled. Important investments have been made in the financial sector, three of the five most important banks in Mexico being European (BBVA Bancomer, Santander Serfin and HSBC). Another very visible European investment in Mexico is in the telecoms sector with Telefónica Movistar as well as the beer industry. In 2010, the Dutch brewery Heineken bought one of the two big beer producers in Mexico (Cuauhtémoc from FEMSA) with an investment of over USD 6.5 billion while Belgian InBev completed the purchase of Grupo Modelo in 2013 for 13 billion USD.
Although the main foreign investor remains the US, with 49% of total FDI over the last 15 years, the EU follows closely with 39% (it was first in 2010 and 2013 with 62% and 57% respectively). The European countries investing most in Mexico are the Netherlands (34%), Spain (3..2%), Belgium (11%) Great Britain (6.6%) and Germany (6.2%). The accumulated flow since 2000 totals USD 145 billion, primarily directed to services, notably financial and tourism, followed by the manufacturing sector. Although the 22.6billion USD worth of investments for 2014 represent a 49% drop compared to the historic 2013EU investment figures, they remain above the annual average registred during the last 15 years.