EU-Mexico TRADE RELATIONS
Trade relations between the EU and Mexico are governed by the Free Trade Agreement in force since 2000, which has allowed significant growth in bilateral trade and has acted as a catalyst for investment flows. Market access is by far the reason why the FTA was negotiated; when NAFTA entered into force, the EU's market share dropped 50%. As for Mexico, it sought to attract further FDI and reduce its economic dependence on the US. Since then, the FTA has served as a powerful instrument to foster a closer co-penetration of both economies. It reinforced Mexico's position as an export-oriented manufacturing center, with guaranteed preferential access to the world's both largest markets, and its average yearly investments flows have tripled. It also contributed to raising the country's competitiveness, not only thanks to the diversification of its trade in goods but also thanks to the liberalization of trade in services.
|• Total trade: 62.1 billion in 2015
• The EU is Mexico's third trade partner
• Mexico is the EU's 15th trade partner
• Main EU exports to Mexico: machinery & transport equipment, chemicals and manufactured goods.
• Main Mexican exports to the EU: machinery & transport equipment, mineral fuels, lubricants and manufactured articles.
• Trade in services amounted to € 11.4 billion in 2014
• Accumulated FDI flows since 2000 to 2015: $ 155.8 billion USD
EU-MEXICAN TRADE RELATIONS IN NUMBERS
EU-Mexico trade amounted to 62.1 billion USD in 2015 (with a significant surplus for the EU of 25.3 billion USD), which represents a 4.3% decrease compared to 2014. EU exports totaled 43.7 billion USD while Mexican exports to the EU reached 18.4 billion USD. The growth in total EU-Mexico trade since 1999 to 2015, just before the FTA, was signed amounts to 232.4%(230% for EU exports to Mexico and 236.3% for Mexican exports to the EU). The EU's share in Mexico's total trade at 8 % in 2015 was slightly lower than before the global crisis erupted (9.4% in 2008), as the recovery from the crisis has been slower for EU-Mexico trade than with other partners. The EU was surpassed by China for the second consecutive year, to become Mexico's third largest trading partner last year. The EU remains the 2nd source of foreign direct investment with over 37.8% of Mexico's accumulated FDI since 2000.
EU exports to Mexico: 43.7 billion USD in 2015
In 2015, EU exports to Mexico amounted to 43.7.0 billion USD, which represents a reduction of 1.9% compared to 2014 and 230% above their level in 1999.
The most important product groups remain the same as always, although their share varies slightly: industrial machinery represented 23% of all exports, followed by electric equipment (14%) auto sector (10%) and refined oil (7%) . On the whole, the EU plays an important role as a provider of capital goods and intermediate products which enter into the production processes of assemblers frequently exporting to the US and other destinations. The large trade deficit Mexico has with the EU is thus largely offset by its surplus with the US.
EU imports from Mexico: 18.4 billion USD in 2015
EU imports from Mexico amounted to 18.4 billion USD in 2015, which represents a decrease of 9.6% compared to 2014 and 236.3% above their 1999 level. The main product group was fuels and mining products although it decreased significatly in percentages terms 21% against 33% of last year followed by transport equipment (18)%, industrial machinery (14%) electric equipment (12%) and optical equipment (4.2%). Apart from oil and unlike most other Latin American economies, Mexico is primarily a supplier of manufactured goods and not a raw materials provider.
EU Investment in Mexico: USD 155.8 billion USD accumulated flow in 16 years (2000–15)
European investment has been historically important in Mexico. Since the FTA came into force, the average yearly investment flow originating in the EU has tripled. Important investments have been made in the financial sector, three of the five most important banks in Mexico being European (BBVA Bancomer, Santander Serfin and HSBC). Another very visible European investment in Mexico is in the telecoms sector with Telefónica Movistar as well as the beer industry. In 2010, the Dutch brewery Heineken bought one of the two big beer producers in Mexico (Cuauhtémoc from FEMSA) with an investment of over USD 6.5 billion while Belgian InBev completed the purchase of Grupo Modelo in 2013 for 13 billion USD.
Although the main foreign investor remains the US, with 49% of total FDI over the last 15 years, the EU follows closely with 37.8% (it was first in 2010 and 2013 with 62% and 57% respectively). The accumulated flow since 2000 totals USD 156 billion, primarily directed to services, notably financial and tourism, followed by the manufacturing sector. In 2015 the EU invested 7.3 billion USD in Mexico , but with the european investment announcements in the automotive sector made over 2015, it can be expected to rebound the two following years.