The Italian Ministry of Defence and the Centre for Defence Higher Studies (CASD), with the support of the ESDC Secretariat, held a "Course on Civilian aspects of Crisis management" in Rome from 9 to 12 November 2015. 28 trainees from EU member states, EU institutions (including EU delegations) and Third countries attended the successful course, which was led by General Salvatore Gagliano, from the CASD.
Particular emphasis was given to the crisis management aspects of the European Union, in particular the decision-making process, legal framework, mandate, capabilities, lessons identified, financing and training. A case study on EUTM Somalia demonstrated by the former Operation Commander, General Massimo Mingiardi, stimulated the discussion on and understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of current concepts and approaches. Another exercise focused on the largest civilian EU mission, EULEX Kosovo.