Political and Economic Relation
Political and Economic Relation
Political Framework: Partnership between the European Union and Angola is based on the ACP-EU Cotonou Partnership Agreement. In a framework of respect for the universal human rights, this landmark pact reaffirms the the EU’s willingness to make a significant contribution to poverty eradication, sustainable development and the gradual (regional and global) integration of African Caribbean and Pacific countries into the global economy.
Political and Policy dialogues: The Cotonou Agreement, notably its articles 8 to 13, define the bilateral framework for the political dialogue between Angola and the EU. Other conventions and political commitments include the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness of 2 March 2005 and its subsequent instruments, the EU-Africa Strategic Partnership, the Country Strategy Paper (CSP) and the National Indicative Programme (NIP) for the period 2008-2013. In addition, there are the Angolan strategic documents, in particular the Long-term National Development Strategy ‘Vision 2025’, National Plans and complementary documents approved by the Angolan Government.
Further dialogue and cooperation between Angola and the EU involve the African Union (AU), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), the PALOP-TL frameworks, the ICGRL, the Gulf of Guinea and the Kimberley process.
The Joint Way Forward [102 KB] : The EU and Angola decided in 2012 to reinforce their political dialogue and engage in a more active political cooperation transcending relations based on aid and development. The decision recognised the important role that Angola plays in Africa and its position in regional and multilateral organisations, as well as in the international sphere, the democratic basis on which the organisation of its society rests and its economic potential, as well as the potential for development of the EU-Angola bilateral relationship.
The signature of the EU-Angola Joint Way Forward (JWF) took place on 23 July 2012 in Brussels. A key element of the JWF is the commitment to regional cooperation and integration; the EU fully supports Angola's active involvement in the different regional and multilateral fora. The JWF supports the 2007 Joint Africa-EU Strategy and takes on several of its priorities in areas considered of common interest: peace and security; good governance and human rights; economic growth and sustaniable development; energy; transport systems; environmental sustainability and climate change; science and technology; training and education. The first ministerial meeting between the EU and Angola takes place on 17 October 2014 [162 KB] .
Bilateral Cooperation: The EU-Angola bilateral cooperation strategy is intended to contribute to the country’s sustainable development through institutional strengthening and capacity-building. This will support the Government in its strategy to combat poverty and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
The European Union is currently the largest donor of grant assistance to Angola. The 10th round of EDF funds (€214m) focus on governance, human, social and rural development (and, as non-focal sectors, non-state actors, water and sanitation, the private sector, regional integration, biodiversity management [7 MB] ). Under the 11th EDF Programme, Angola will receive €210m. Funding will target: (i) vocational training and higher education, (ii) sustainable agriculture and (iii) water and sanitation.
Regional cooperation: As a member of SADC, Angola will benefit from regional funding. Under the 11th EDF, SADC, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the East Africa Community (EAC), the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) will be covered under the same Regional Indicative Programme (RIP). Assistance will focus on three sectors: i) peace, security and regional stability; ii) regional economic integration; and iii) regional natural resources management. Regional infrastructure receives an allocation (preferably for the joint-financing of projects), as do other regional activities such as migration, wildlife, river and aquifer management, sustainable fisheries (including inland) and maritime security.
Angola is part of the PALOP-TL group (Portuguese speaking African countries and Timor Leste) and benefits from the envelope allocated to this programme (10th EDF: €33.1m in the field of governance, of which €7m came under Angola’s NIP; 11th EDF: €30mfor governance and employment).
Dialogue with Civil Society: Civil society is an important element of any democratic society. The European Union supports civil society activities, currently through the Programme to Support Non-State Actors 2012-2015 (PAANE) and two annual thematic programmes – the Programme of Non-State Actors and Local Authorities in Development (NSA-LAs) and the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR). These programmes aim to contribute to active participation, and to support Non-State Actors in the fighting poverty and promoting governance; to strengthen the capacity of Angolan Non-State Actors as to participate in a dialogue with local and national authorities; to improve the coordination and the networking of Angolan Non-State Actors and to support their actions in order to promote a democratic developed and inclusive society. The EU allocated €16.6m for such activities in 2008-2013.
Other fields of cooperation: At the request of the Angolan government, an EU electoral expert mission assessed the general (legislative and presidential) elections on 31 August 2012 . An EU mission also observed the legislative elections of 2008. ECHO provided humanitarian support in the form of food in 2013 (funded from the 10th EDF B envelope). Most of Angola is prone to erratic and below normal rainfall, with frequent droughts. This means food insecurity for the population.
Angola may also receive funds from programmes such as Horizon 2020, the programme to promote research and innovation (2014-2020) and Erasmus+, which covers projects in the field of training, education, culture, youth and sport. One Angolan student has benefitted from Erasmus+. Discussions for a cooperation research agreement with the JRC in the field of weather surveillance/nutrition are ongoing.
Economic and trade relations: The European Union is an important partner for Angola in terms of economy and trade. According to the latest data, the EU is the largest exporter (mainly due to Portugal) to Angola and its third-largest trading partner. In regional terms, Angola is the EU’s second-largesttrading partner in southern Africa.
The relationship between Angola and the European Union has assumed growing importance in the framework of investment flow. In the commercial sphere, Angola benefits, as a less developed country, from the EU initiative "Everything But Arms", ensuring free access to EU markets for all Angolan products.
Angola was not involved in the negotiations for an (EPA) Economic Partnership Agreement, concluded in July 2014 with six other Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries. The EPA aims to create a new trade regime compatible with the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as to support the regional integration of the ACP countries and to facilitate the gradual and harmonious integration of these countries into the world economy. Angola is also one of the 3 countries out of 15 - together with the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Seychelles – that have not signed the SADC Trade Protocol.